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What is the evidence that explains the earliest history of humans and the planet?
Humans first appeared on Earth during the Paleolithic Era. The evidence of burial grounds, as well as stone tools and other items explains this. They show a general migration path from Africa outwards. These tools show that the groups were hunter-foragers and nomadic.
What are the theories that interpret this evidence?
Anthropologists infer through analogy between modern hunter-forager societies.
Where did humans first appear on Earth, and what were their society, technology, and culture?
Humans first appeared on Earth during the Paleolithic Era, in the steppes and savannah of Africa, before migrating to Eurasia, the Americas, and Australia. These humans were hunter-foragers, changing their tools and culture to adapt to their surroundings.
Describe earliest humans' technology & tools.
The humans used fire as a main tool everywhere, from hunting and foraging, as well as for defense and warmth. The earlier human's used a variety of stone weapons for their specific environments and food they hunted.
What were the earliest humans' religious beliefs and practices?
Many of the earliest beliefs were in spirits, no real concept of gods. The beliefs were animistic in nature.
How did the earliest humans' society help them procure enough supplies to survive?
Each band of hunter-foragers had specific duties assigned to a group of people to make what they needed for survival. However, exchanges in items and ideas between these groups were common.
What were the long-term demographic, social, political, and economic effects of the Neolithic Revolution?
The societies that were founded in the Neolithic Revolution were the foundation of the River Valley civilizations
How did pastoral societies resemble or differ from early agricultural societies?
Where did pastoralism persist even after the Neolithic Revolution? Differences: •Pastoral societies were smaller and more mobile than early agricultural societies •Pastoralism focused more on hunting and gathering, while early agricultural societies depended more on the same soil... •Pastoral societies adapted far better to their environment as they could move Similarities: •Both developed animal husbandry
Why did the Neolithic Revolution start ?
There are many theories regarding the origin of Neolithic societies. •need for a long-term reliable source of food to nourish a rapidly growing society •rose because people experimented with plants out of their own free time •the need for political and social organization •by accident
How did the Neolithic Revolution affect human societies economically & socially?
The Neolithic Revolution began the era of permanent societies. · Due to the closed nature of society, the demographic of farmers was less diverse than of the demographic of herders as they mostly mated within their population · Gender roles became more prevalent · The reliance on the limited amount of land they had gave way to political organization · Less variety in terms of food which affected the overall health of the farming society's citizens · Political organization caused social organization which was divided by amount of property and power.
Where did the Neolithic Revolution first transform human populations?
•Asia - east of the Zagros Mountains, Middle East regions. Click here for information on Indus Valley Civilization •Americas - high Andes to Amazon River Basin •Africa - Egypt, the Nile River Valley. Click here for information on Nile River Valley civilization. •Pacific Islands - New Guinea •Europe - Northern Europe
What various crops & animals were developed or domesticated during the Neolithic Revolution?
The trinity: maize, beans, and squash
Rye, wheat, barley
Various marine animals, snails
Sheep, goats, yaks, llamas
What were the environmental effects of the Neolithic Revolution?
Soil was overused.
Deforestation occurred to make more land available for agriculture
Animals became more suited to human needs due to animal husbandry
What effects did pastoralism & agriculture have on the food supply?
At first the food supply was unreliable due to a lot of energy devoted to crop production
The food supply slowly became more reliable and created surplus In certain regions of the world, food options were limited
What were the social effects of the increased food supply caused by increase of agriculture?
Created class distinctions, the people with more land and therefore more food were on the higher end of the social hierarchy Increased population More leisure time Feasting increased loyalty to leadership
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