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Adrienne is a 16-year-old girl who is searching for her identity. Which of the following would not be an example of the search for her self-concept?

She would describe herself using only a list of traits

What is the name of the stage of faith in which individuals contemplate their beliefs and values?

individualistic-reflective stage

Some developmentalists have considered the combination of race and gender as simultaneously affecting an adolescent's self-esteem, thus coining the term


According to Erikson, an adolescent's reliance on peers to help them define their identities and learn to form relationships is the link between the

identity-versus-identity-confusion and intimacy-versus-isolation stages.

According to James Marcia, which of the following four categories of identity development leads to adolescents living with relatively high anxiety and psychological conflict, while at the same time these adolescents can be lively and appealing and seek intimacy with others?


What is the percentage of teenagers who experience major depression, in which their psychological disorder is such that the depression is severe and lingers for a long time?


Warren is a 16-year-old male who recently started to give away important possessions, stopped eating, and demonstrated general depression by being lethargic and uncommunicative. Warren may be demonstrating a warning sign of


What is the likely reason why adolescents refer to their peers rather than their parents for social comparison?

Adolescents' desire for autonomy makes parents and other adult family members, in general, inadequate and invalid sources for information.

Differences between undersocialized delinquents and socialized delinquents include all of the following except

socialized delinquents will live a life of crime into adulthood while undersocialized delinquents are rehabilitated.

About ___________ adolescents have had sexual intercourse before the age of _____

one in five; 15.

Which of the following is NOT an alarm or warning sign of adolescent suicide?

constant wearing of black or dark clothing

Alan is a very masculine young man who excels in typical male-oriented activities. Still, he is sexually attracted to other men. For Alan, being attracted to other men is his

sexual orientation.

What percentage of 15-year-old males engage in masturbation, and what percentage of 15-year-old girls engage in masturbation, respectively?

80%; 20%

Allison is well-liked by the other members of her swim team, but not well-liked by other adolescent girls in her homeroom class. Allison would be considered


The rate of adolescent suicide in the United States has _____ in the last 30 years.


According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but never commit to one or never even consider identity options in any conscious way is called

identity diffusion

Erikson believed that because of the pressures related to the identity-versus-identity-confusion stage, many adolescents

pursue a "psychological moratorium," during which they take time off from responsibilities to explore alternative roles and possibilities

Which of the following is not a primary factor in determining an adolescent male's self-esteem?


Societal messages suggest that which of the following is a roadblock to a female's social success

academic achievement

According to Erikson, if an adolescent struggles to find and adopt a suitable identity, he/she may do any/all of the following except

develop an identity disorder/mental illness such as schizophrenia

According to James Marcia's definition, crisis is

a period of identity development in which an adolescent consciously chooses between various alternatives and makes decisions

Which of the following models represents U.S. minority groups, which draw from their own cultural identities while integrating themselves into the dominant culture?

bicultural identity model

Amy has committed suicide. Her grieving mother is attending a self-help group for mothers whose teens have committed suicide. What is the most common explanation the therapist has given the group for why teenagers kill themselves?

family discord

According to psychologist Judith Smetana, what is the most likely reason for more conflict between adolescents and their parents in the earlier stage of adolescence compared to the later stage of adolescence?

definitions of and rationales for appropriate vs. inappropriate conduct

Adolescent membership in particular cliques and crowds is often determined by

the degree of similarity with members of the group

Randal is a 17-year-old whose parents have left him mostly on his own for several years. They leave for days on end to drink and gamble, leaving no food or assistance for him in the home. When they do come around, they often beat Randal and criticize him because the house is unkempt. Randal is usually on the streets vandalizing cars and getting involved in arson. Randal would be categorized as a(n)

undersocialized delinquent.

While dating is a part of a pattern of courtship that can potentially lead to marriage, it can also do all of the following except

establish sexual or gender identity/preference

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