Government EOC Vocab
Terms in this set (115)
In this type of government, political and governmental power is held by the citizens of the country, who choose leaders form among themselves.
This is a system of government in which the people participate directly in making all public policy.
This is a type of government in which the citizens elect government officials to make laws and run the government.
This is a type of government in which the people give elected officials the authority to make laws and conduct governmental business.
This is a form of government run by elected leaders.
This term refers to the period of Roman history between the expulsion of the Kings (the Monarchy) and the accession of the first Emperor, Augustus (the Empire). It lasted from 510 BC to 27 BC
This is a form of municipal legislature, still seen in some New England states, where an entire local group of people are able to participate in the creation of local governing policies.
Bill Of Rights
This is the first ten amendments to the constitution, generally directed at protecting the individual from abuse of power by the national government.
Brown V. Board Of Education
This Supreme Court case, decided in 1954 declared that the segregation doctrine of "separate but equal" was not constitutional when applied to the public school system.
This is the system by which the main institutions of a nation's government are arranged and kept in place. It may be written down (as in the United States) or it may be unwritten (as in Great Britain).
This was a series of Articles written to persuade New York to ratify the Constitution.
Marbury V. Madison
This was the first decision of the Supreme Court of the United States to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional, thus establishing the doctrine of judicial review.
McCulloch V. Maryland
This Supreme Court case upheld the Federal government's use of "implied powers," those that are necessary to keep the government running and are not expressly listed in the Constitution.
Miranda V. Arizona
This is the court case that upheld that the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination requires law officials to advise a suspect of his rights to remain silent and obtain a lawyer.
Separate But Equal
This is the name of the legal doctrine of discrimination of the races that was adopted by much of the United States following the "Plessy V. Ferguson" Supreme Court ruling in 1896.
This document outlines the plan for how the federal government is organized, what powers the federal government has, and specifies limits placed upon the federal government.
Checks and Balances
This is the system of overlapping powers among judicial, executive, and legislative branches to allow each branch to oversee the actions of the others.
Powers that are held by both the federal and state governments.
Powers specifically given to the government by the Constitution.
This is a policy that the government's actions towards its citizens must follow established rules and procedures.
This system of government has powers divided between the central government and regional governments, with central government being supreme.
This is the system of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or for the violation of basic principals of justice.
This is the belief that the ultimate power of the government rests on the will of the people themselves.
These are powers that are held for the states to execute, not for the federal government.
Separation of Powers
This is the Constitutional principal that the law making, executive, and judicial powers be held by different groups and people.
In Gibbons V. Ogden (1824), the supreme court ruled that the Commerce Clause of the Constitution grants the ____________ ________ the power to regulate trade between states.
This refers to rules established at some level of government for the purpose of guiding business practices. Although it is commonly accepted that some guiding rules are beneficial to encourage competition and promote the public good, it is also commonly accepted that it may increase the cost of doing business.
This is a form of government in which the power to rule is significantly restrained by a strong Constitution or other document.
This is a basic rule of democracy: one more than half of all voting persons must approve for something to become law.
This basic idea of democracy holds that the majority of people cannot deny privileges and liberties to others.
This is the primary use of tax revenue in many states, examples include schools, roads, fire fighters, and law enforcement officers.
Rule of Law
This is the legal notion that the power of government is limited and restrained by legal means and is not at the mercy and whims of individuals.
In McCulloch V. Maryland (1819), the Supreme Court ruled that the actions of ____________ ___________ were secondary to those of the federal government.
Rule of Man
This political concept describes the political condition in which a single ruler or party exercises absolute authority and is not bound by any law.
Articles of Confederation
The first government of the United States was based on this, which was created in 1777.
A group of provinces or states that come together under a common constitution. They differ from a federation in that they retain secific state or provincial rights.
Declaration of Independence
This was an act passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 declaring the thirteen American Colonies independent of British rule.
This was an eighteenth century intellectual movement beginning in France.
He was a 17th century English philosopher whose book "Leciathan" (1651) helped to clarify both the "social contract theory" of government.
This was the Great Charter of English Charter of English liberty granted (under considerable duress) by King John at Runnymede on June 15, 1215.
This was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony, signed by the Pilgrims in November 1620.
He was a French Enlightenment philosopher and author of The Social Contract, which became one of the most influential works of political philosophy in the Western tradition.
This is a political theory that individuals have privileges that no government can deny.
He was a French philosopher who developed a number of political theories in his Spirit of the Laws.
Separation of Powers
This is the Constitutional principle that the law making, executive, and judicial powers be held by different groups and people.
Social Contract Theory
This is an agreement between the governed and the government and the defining and limiting the rights and duties of each.
This is the term for a Congressional procedure that is used to limit or quickly end debate on issues before the Senate. It requires the support of 60% of the Senate.
This only forms when the Senate and House of Representatives pass different versions of the same bill; members of both houses meet to work out the differences.
A government on which absolute power is exercised by one ruler.
This is the term for a tactic in which a Senator attempts to delay a vote on a bill by talking continually, refusing to "yield the floor" to other Senators.
House of Representatives
This is the lower house of Congress, where tax bills must originate, and where impeachment proceedings for Federal officials begin.
This is the formal accusation against a Federal (or state) official for wrong-doing while in office. Or is the first step in the process of removing the official from office.
This is a standing of the U.S. House that is charged with overseeing the administration of justice within the federal courts and is the committee responsible for impeachments of federal officials.
On a legislative body,this is the person who is usually the floor leader of the political party with the most representation within the legislature.
On a legislative body, this is the person who is usually the floor leader of the political party that does not have the most representation within the legislative body.
President Pro Tempore
This is the presiding officer of the Senate who id from the majority party and who serves as the leader when the Vice-President of the United States is absent.
This is a proposed law that is placed on the ballot for the general public to approve or disapprove for passage.
This is when citizens are allowed to directly vote on whether to accept of reject a proposed law.
This is the upper house of Congress, where treaties and appointments are approved, and where impeachment trials are held.
Speaker of the House
This is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives and is chosen from the majority party in the House.
This is a type of committee that is found in both houses of Congress and are permanent panels in every session.
This is the power of the executive to prevent a bill from passing.
This is the name given to a member of a legislative body whose job is to make sure his political party stays unifies when debating and voting on bills.
These are basic rights, such as freedom of speech and assembly, that are protected from government interference.
When the president appoints a new member to the cabinet, the Senate must _________ the person before that person get the job.
This is the power of the legislative branch of government to vote a bill into law even though it has been vetoed by the head of the Executive branch.
This is the term given to a law that a judicial body overturns because it violates basic or specific rules of the government.
A type of government in which one person or a small group has absolute power.
This is a type of government in which power is held by a single, self appointed ruler.
This is an economic system proposed by Karl Marx in which all means of production are owned by the proletariat, but are controlled by the government when practiced by countries such as the Soviet Union and China.
This is a form of government in which a monarch is the head of state but his or her powers are restricted by law, usually within a parliamentary system.
This is the form of government with one ruler, such as a king or queen.
This is an economic system where the government controls the major means of production but property and other business may be privately owned.
This is a centralized government that does not tolerate opposing political opinions.
This is the practice of having two chambers in a legislature or parliament.
This is the name given to a legislative body, such as that in Great Britain, that is usually led by a Prime Minister.
In this type of government, there is no clear-cut separation of powers between legislative and executive branches, though the legislative has the most power.
This term refers to a nation's system of government and the formal legal institutions that define that government.
This is the title of the person who is Head of State and/or Head of Government, and is in charge of an executive branch of the government.
In this type of government, the elected head of the executive branch acts independently of the legislative and judicial branches.
This is the name given to the most senior member of the majority party in a parliamentary system.
This is the practice of having only one chamber in a legislature or a parliament.
In this type of government, the institutions of the state are governed as a single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature.
This political ideology is associated with the Republican Party in the United States.
This is a resident of a district or member of an area represented by an elected official.
This political party was founded in the early 1800s and is now associated with political beliefs that lie to the left of center.
This is the body of people who are eligible to vote.
This is a form of illegal redistricting in which a political district is redrawn for the sole purpose of creating a constituency of a specific demographic (political party, racial category, ethnic group).
This name is given to a political or social movement that attempts to mobilize its supporters on a widespread level, using local members or teams to organize its members.
In political science, this provides a means by which a document signed by a minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a purposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance, or it can require the executive or legislative bodies to consider the subject.
This is the name given to organizations who attempt to affect the political process by informing and influencing members of the government to pass or block the passage of laws.
This political ideology is associated with the Democratic Party in the United States.
This is the name given to a person who tries to influence legislation of behalf of a special interest group.
This is a general term used to describe all forms of communication.
This is a political organization within a business or industry that is legally allowed to raise money for candidates who favor or are sympathetic to to the groups causes.
This is a statement of a political party's beliefs and position on many if not most issues.
This is an organization that seeks to attain and maintain power within government usually by participating in electoral campaigns.
This political party was founded in the mid 1800s and is now associated with political beliefs that lie to the right of center.
This is the term that refers to the funds given or donated to a state or local political party and are not subject to donation limits normally associated with individual political candidates.
This is the right to vote.
This term refers to a political group, other than Democrats and Republicans, that attempts to get their candidates elected to public office.
This term refers to the laws that protects citizens from undue or unwarranted government intrusion into their lives, either personal or as an organization.
Civil Rights Act
Signed into law by President Johnson, this bill protected African Americans and women from job discrimination and any discrimination in public places.
This term refers to the process of taking away the right to vote from people who would normally enjoy that right.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws requiring that facilities and accommodations, public and private, be separated by race
Voting Rights Act
This was a congressional decision that outlawed voters to being subjected to a literacy test and created federal registration for voters.
Amendment to the United States Constitution stating: "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
This amendment prohibited the sale and use of alcoholic beverages.
This amendment passed in 1933 repealed the prohibition of alcohol.
Limited the number of terms a president can serve; no person can be elected for more than two terms.
This amendment, ratified in 1964, forbids the national and state governments from changing the poll tax in order to vote in any election.
If the president dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the vice president shall become president.
This amendment to the Constitution allowed citizens 18 years or older to vote.
This is one of the post Civil War amendments to the US Constitution that includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses.
Amendment to the US Constitution abolishing and prohibiting slavery.
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