Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
AP World History Strayer Chapter 2 Concepts
Terms in this set (9)
When and where did the firsts civilizations emerge?
The first civilizations emerged around 3500 BCE to 3000 BCE in 3 places:
- "cradle" of Middle East (southern Mesopotamia) the Sumerians.
-Nile River Valley (north east Africa) the Egyptians and Nubia.
- Central Coast of Peru (Andes Mountain and Pacific Ocean) the Norte Chico.
What accounts for the initial breakthroughs to civilizations?
The initial breakthrough to civilizations was made possible by Agricultural Revolution, the growing density of people, irrigation, and domestication of plants and animals. The growing density of people caused more congested and competitive societies. Ending in conflict that the winner took the losers' land and people.
What was the role of cities in the early civilizations?
Cities were political/administrative capitals, they functioned as centers for the production of culture, art, architecture, literature, ritual and ceremonies. They served as market places and had manufacturing activities in the center. Specialization seen everywhere.
In what ways was social inequality expressed in early civilizations?
Wealth, Status, and Power.
- Upper class enjoyed wealth in land and salaries so they avoided physical labor. (Top positions in political, military, religious life).
- Distinguished by the clothing they wore, house they lived, and manner of their burial.
- In Mesopotamia: Used Hammurabi's code. Punishment severity based on social status.
- In China: special clothing, chariots, weapons, and ornaments.
In what ways have historians tried to explain the origins of patriarchy?
1.) The role of new and more intense agriculture (animal drawn plows and care of large animals). Much heavier work and less compatible with childbearing.
2.) Growing population meant more kids so more involved in child care. Men took over work so women's status declined.
3.) Warfare: military service restricted to men, so it enhanced their power and image.
4.) Property and commerce: Men wanted reassurance in heritage and control.
How did Mesopotamian and Egyptian patriarchy differ from each other?
written laws to enforce patriarchy families and offer "protection" for unquestioned authority of men. Unequal severity of punishments. Women could only own business on behalf of husband.
Afforded greater opportunities to women recognized as legally equal to men (could own property and slaves). Women could make their own wills and could marry and divorce. Weren't veiled and could be in political position.
What were the sources of state and authorities in the first civilizations?
1.) Recognition that cities need authority: someone to organize.
2.) State: Served to protect upperclassmen. Authorities could use violence to punish the lowerclassmen.
3.) Kinship and gods: King's known as "mandate of heaven" in China were the son of a god. Others were divinely blessed from patron of the cities' god. Egyptians used this a lot with pharaohs. Religion used to justify unequal power.
4.) Kings and elites controlled entire state.
In what ways did Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations differ from each other.
- "Nile River" Predictable flooding.
- Closed and surrounded by desert = no invasions (Free security).
- Environmentally stable and predictable. Had optimistic view of life (life after death).
- Stable Agriculture system.
- Unified state ruled by pharaoh (3000 years of peace).
- Women had rights and treated better.
- "Tigris and Euphrates" rose annually but unpredictable.
- Open area = open for invasions.
- Deforestation to make temples, monuments, walls.
- Viewed humans as inherently disorderly, subject to gods' whims, facing death with no hope.
- Use of soil too much on crops, weakened society and weak agricultural system.
- City-states ruled by King with lots of conflicts.
In what ways were Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations shaped by their interactions with near and distant neighbors?
1.) Agriculture: wheat and barley in Egypt from Mesopotamia. Watermelon, donkeys, cattle from Sudan.
2.) "Divine Kingship": came from Sudan and Egyptian and Mesopotamian "kings" buried them with special things (sacred).
3.) Had Trade between each other: luxury goods. Sumerians with Indus Valley Civilization. Mesopotamia traded with Anatolia, Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan. Egypt traded with Africa and parts of Europe.
4.) Hebrews showed culture through sacred writing ("eye for an eye" and flood story).
5.) Nubia (Africa) traded military forms with Egypt.
6.) Art forms, music, weaving, olive and pomegranate trees.
Sets found in the same folder
Chapter 21 reading cards
AP World History Strayer Chapter 2
AP History Chapter 18
Chapter 21: Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conf…
Sets with similar terms
World History 1 Unit 2
APWH Unit 1 Review- Major comparisons and Snapshots
Western Civ Chapter 1
Other sets by this creator
AP GOV & POLITICS
AP lit vocab 18
Units 1-6 EOC Study Cards
Vocabulary Lesson 16 - Third Course