Chapter 13 Urban Patterns

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annexation
legally adding land area to a city in the United States
census tract
an area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Central Business District (CBD)
the area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
city
an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit
combined statistical area (CSA)
In the United States, tow or more contiguous core based statistical areas tied together by commuting patterns
concentric zone model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
core based statistical area (CBSA)
In the United States, the combination of all metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas
council of government
a cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States
density gradient
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
edge city
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
filtering
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
gentrification
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income, renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class, owner-occupied area
greenbelt
a ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
in the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 inhabitants, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
micropolitan statistical area
an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
mulitiple nuclei model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
peripheral model
a model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
primary census statistical area (PCSA)
in the United States, all of the combined statistical areas plus all of the remaining metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas
public housing
housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes
redlining
a process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
rush hour
the four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
sector model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD)
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area
sprawl
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area
squatter settlement
an area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures
underclass
a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics
urban renewal
program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocated the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers
urbanized area
in the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs
zoning ordinance
a law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
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