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34 terms

Foundations of College Chemistry - chapter 19

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organic chemistry
the chemistry of compounds of carbon
organic chemistry (old definition)
the chemistry of compounds in living (or once living) things
hydrocarbons
comounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
alkanes
hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms
single bond
two electrons are shared
double bond
four electrons (two pairs) are shared
triple bond
six electrons (three pairs) are shared
homologous series
a group of compounds with the same general formula
structural formula
a chemical formula indicating the location of atomic bonds in a molecule
isomers
molecules with the same chemical formula but different structural formulas
side group
a group of atoms replacing hydrogen on the longest chain of carbon atoms
branched hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons with side groups on the longest carbon chain
normal hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons with only hydrogens or other single atoms on the longest carbon chain
condensed structural formula
a structural formula written on one line using parentheses to indicate side groups
alkenes
hydrocarbons with at least one double bond between carbons; e.g. C₂H₄ (ethene/ethylene)
alkynes
hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond between carbons; e.g. C₂H₂ (ethyne/acetylene)
aromatic hydrocarbons
compounds with a benzene ring
benzene ring
a ring of six carbons joined with alternating double and single bonds
hybrid bonds
bonds which can be thought of as the average of double and single bonds, as in C₆H₆
monosubstituted benzenes
benzene ring with one side group or "substituent" on a benzene ring
substituent
any side group or single atom substituted for a hydrogen on a benzene ring or other hydrocarbon
disubstituted benzenes
benzene ring with two substituents
polysubstituted benzens
benzene ring wtih three or more substituents
halogenated hydrocarbons
derivatives of alkanes, alkenes or alkynes (non-aromatics) with at least one hydrogen atom substituent
alcohols
a hydrocarbon derivative with at least one hydrogen replaced by hydroxyl (OH⁻)
ethers
two hydrocarbon groups joined by an oxygen
aldehydes
molecules containing -CHO linked to a hydrocarbon chain or a hydrogen
ketones
molcules with carbonyl carbon (-CO) linking two hydrocarbon groups
carbonyl carbon
a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom
organic acids
acids which contain carbon and the carboxyl group (-COOH)
carboxyl group
the group -COOH in organic acids
carboxylic acids
alternative name for organic acids because of the carboxyl group they contain
function group
a group characterizing each type of organic compound
R-group
a hydrocarbon or aromatic part connected to a functional group