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AP Euro Chapter 30
Terms in this set (49)
Charles de Gaulle
A French war hero who in 1946, helped establish a new government called the Forth Republic. It featured a strong parliament and a weak presidency. No party was strong enough to dominate, and the government was largely ineffective. Unhappy with the Forth Republic, he withdrew from politics, but returned in 1958. Then he drafted a new constitution for the Fifth Republic that greatly enhanced the power of the president who would now have the right to choose the prime minister, dissolve parliament, and supervise both defense and foreign policy. The constitution was overwhelmingly approved by French voters and he became the first president of the Fifth Republic. He sought to return France to a position of great power. He invested heavily in nuclear arms and France exploded its first atomic bomb in 1960.
leader of Guomindang. broke with radicals led by Mao and tried to destroy them. conflicts led to civil war. US helped Chiang. Mao won.
British Labour Party leader (1935-55) and prime minister (1945-51). He presided over the establishment of the welfare state in Great Britain and the granting of independence to India, the most important step in the conversion of the British Empire into the Commonwealth of Nations. He was perhaps the leading Labour politician of the 20th century. He transformed his party into the natural opponent of the Conservative Party and thus polarized British politics.
leader of communist cuba. allied with USSR closely
led resistance to british rule in india after WWI. preached nonviolent noncooperation. wrested a new constitution in 1935
Ho Chi Minh
stopped france from re-establishing indochina with chinese and USSR aid
was the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, serving from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen year term as General Secretary was one of the lengthiest, second only to that of Joseph Stalin. Brezhnev's rule saw the global influence of the Soviet Union's grow dramatically, in part because of the expansion of the Soviet Army during this time. His tenure as leader has often been criticized for marking the beginning of a period of economic stagnation which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
leader of the communist movement in china. won the chinese civil war.
Russian Soviet statesman and premier after Stalin who denounced him. He led the de-Stalinization of Russia and argued for major innovations. He wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved., ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation, premier (1894-1971)
communist leader of yugoslavia. able to resist soviet domination. stood up to stalin in 1948--successful because there was no USSR army in yugoslavia
In Czechoslovakia in the 1960s the reforms went furthest in the Eastern bloc. They posed the most direct challenge to the Soviets. Dubcek, the Czech leader, spoke openly of "Communism with a human face." He curbed the activities of the police and permitted a significant freedom of the press. This greater degree gave rise to what was referred to as the "Prague Spring." But Brezhnev, who had replaced Khrushchev in 1964, sent in 400,000 troops in 1968 and crushed what was labelled as a counterrevolution. This was justified as the Brezhnev Doctrine. The effect was to further alienate the Communist faithful outside of USSR even more than the Hungarian Revolt of 1956.
Britain, US, USSR
(June 26, 1886- September 4, 1963) was twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building post- war European and trans- Atlantic institutions and is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe, and NATO. While foreign minister, he developed the Schuman Plan (1950) to promote European economic and military unity and a Franco- German rapprochement to prevent another war between the two nations. The economic aspects of his plan were realized in 1952 in the European Coal and Steel Community, a six- nation western European economic union, the first in a series of economic agreements leading to the formation of the European Economic Community (Common Market) in 1958. He worked for economic and political unity designed to lead to the establishment of a "United States of Europe". He served as president of the EEC's consultative assembly from 1958- 60.
planning commission set goals for economy and used national banks to funnel money into certain insdustries
became president of Egypt. He replaced/deposed Farouk (a king). He also was very popular, & wanted to modernize Egypt. He wanted to build the Aswan High Dam, so he asked the U.S. for support. However, we did not give as much help/money to them as they needed/wanted so he turned and asked the USSR for help. In 1956 he led the Egyptians to take over the Suez Canal (Suez Crisis), which England and France controlled (they wanted to fight to get it back), meanwhile the USSR wanted to go in and help the Egyptians (whom were becoming more socialist).
German Minister of Economy. broke with Nazi economy and adopted capitalism
elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine also. He was involved in Détente, which was a way to create peaceful relations between the United States and the communist countries of Moscow and Beijing. One of the most distinct factors relating to Nixon was that he was the first President to ever resign due to the Watergate scandal. He resigned on August 8, 1974.He was the Repubican President of the United States during the Vietnam War (1969-1974). He made many improvements for the environment, and he took the United States off the gold standard. As a result of the Watergate Scandal, Nixon was forced to resign. Many other problems hurt his term such as the energy crisis, but mainly Watergate. He removed US troops from Vietnam in 1973 with his Vietnamization policy.
Simone de Beauvoir
The first and one of the most influential major works produced by the second wave was The Second Sex (1949) by the French writer and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986). Beauvoir analyzed the position of women within the framework of existential thought. She argued that women-like all human beings-were in essence free but that they had almost always been trapped by particularly inflexible and limiting conditions. (1024)
A leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the "second wave" of American feminism in the twentieth century. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women, which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men".
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
West German Chancellor
The first Social Democratic Party Chancellor in West Germany,
Cold War mayor of West Berlin who served as Chancellor of West Germany (1968-74). He instituted a policy of greater cooperation with eastern communist nations.
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns. built up the army greatly
elected President in France in 1981. He was a moderate Socialist; revitalized the Socialist Party. Introduced labor reforms, nationalized large banks and some industrial corporations. Increased labor costs reduced French competitiveness abroad --> slow economic growth, trade deficits, inflation, unemployment, and weakening of franc. In 2 years abruptly changed course: halted nationalization and reforms, retrenchment, and modernization. Isolated Communists and reduced electoral strength. Economic and political dissatisfaction, unemployment, and scandals --> rout of Socialist in 1993 and return of large conservative majority.
leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.
British Labour Party
"welfare state": industries nationalized, government gave medical care
inspired and united by common christian beliefs and euro. heritage. rejected authoritarianism and narrow nationalism. placed faith in democracy and cooperation
group of chinese nationalists dedicated to unifying china and abolishing european concessions
Indian Congress Party
General definition: One of the two major political parties in India; founded in 1885, it is a party of elites.
- transformed into mass party
- dominant from 1947- late 1980's
- leadership committed to democracy
- incorporates mass public
- linkages between the party & people
- votes for goods
- internalize divisions
Significance: Fostered Indian national identity at a time when such an identity was unclear... leadership is committed to Democracy. Gandhi, Nehru, Indira Gandhi were all important leaders.
4th and 5th Republics
4th: decentralization, government was always falling, didnt accomplish anything, no stable
5th: strong executive, president wasnt responsible to parliament (not as many checks); disolve the National Assembly
In 1941 FDR and Churchill met at sea off the coast of Newfoundland to plan strategy and post-war actions. They negotiated in the spirit of the Fourteen Points - sovereign rights, self-government, equal access to world trade and resources, improved standard of living and economic security. They wanted to end the use of force and aggression in international affairs. Thus they proclaimed the ideological basis for peace.
The doctrine created after the USSR invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, according to which the USSR and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need
USSR and satellite countries. response to NATO
Nov. 1943. Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill. in Tehran. showed importance of determining subsequent events among the Big Three
Feb. 1945. Big Three agreed Ger. would be divided into occupation zones and have to pay large reparations to USSR. USSR agreed to declare war on Japan after Ger. was defeated. eastern governments to be freely elected, but pro-Russian
July 1945. postwar. Truman wanted free elections in e.Euro. Stalin refused, because it went against communism
financial aid that focused on aiding Turkey and Greece to keep out communism
1950 The plan was to join the German and French coal and steel industries under one authority in order to turn historical enemies into partners. Based on the Schuman plan, six countries sign a treaty to run their heavy industries - coal and steel - under a common management. In this way, none can on its own make the weapons of war to turn against the other, as in the past.
US would give financial aid to any country that wanted it
preventing the spread of communism
Treaty of Rome
started the common market
1975: detente expanded to Europe as a whole, the declaration focused on improving the relations between Communist government and the western world, with a goal of reducing Cold War tension. It had a widespread goal of human rights and clarification that European boundaries should be seen as non-movable.
A new model of science founded during WWII. This form of science combined by theoretical work with sophisticated engineering in a large organization was not only very expensive, but also could attack extremely difficult problems from better products for consumers to new and improved weapons for the military. This required large financing from governments and also large corporations. The USA took the lead in this after WWII. Scientists were altered by this. There were many more scientists and much specialized knowledge. Specialization made teamwork, bureaucracy, and managers necessary. It became difficult to appraise an individual scientist's contribution to a team effort. However, competition was often fierce.
unified the , Begun in 1958 following the 1957 Treaty of Rome. Included Benelux, France, Italy and FRG. Plan was to eliminate all customs barriers between countries and have a common tariff policy on imports by the year 1966. Gradually to remove all restrictions on movt of capital and workers. EEC took over much of institutional machinery of ECSC. In 1958 175 million people became thriving aggregate(a regional tariff union) within the world economy. Trade within the Common Market/EEC doubled compared with trade with countries outside over 10 years. The EEC certainly helped to consolidate the postwar economic miracle of Western Europe.
Party leaders that identified themselves with Russian patriotism, stressing their role in saving the country during WWII by protecting it from foreigners; they were leaders within the Communist party in non-Russian republics. Thought liberalism would undermine their power
The Vietnam War occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia from 1959 to April 30, 1975. The war was fought between the communist North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other member nations of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). The United States entered the war to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. Military advisors arrived beginning in 1950. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s and combat units were deployed beginning in 1965. Involvement peaked in 1968 at the time of the Tet Offensive. Despite a peace treaty signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued. In April 1975, North Vietnam captured Saigon. North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year
A series of attacks by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops that come together as one large offensive movement. They tirelessly launched surprise attacks on U.S. military bases, government buildings, and the U.S. embassy. Saigon became the main target of many of these attacks, and fighting continued on in the war for months there. This movement is also notable for Communist brutality, when troops would slaughter any suspected enemy without hesitation, and engaged mass executions.
US alliance with western governments against communism
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Council of Europe
supposed to evolve into euro parl. with sovereign rights
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