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pp. 60 - 69


__ may be either basic, additive, or subtractive.


Treatment using ___ focuses on the client's past

unconditional positive regard

When counselors accept and value clients without reservation, they demonstrate __ __ __

reality therapy

insists that clients take full responsibility for their actions.


Humanistic counselors believe that clients are inherently moving towards ___


The ___ relationship is voluntary, professional, and egaltarian.


Counselors who consistently behave in accordance with their own values and perceptions are exhibiting the trait called ___.


The ___ counselor has a personal style that incorporates methods and techniqus from a variety of theories and approaches.

TA view

According to the __ ___ , clients' current behaviors, feelings, and actions are based on their life scripts.


___ developed scales for measuring empathy, genuiness, and respect. Counselor response scales.


Counselors who fear rejection or fear closeness and affection may have difficulty developjng __ in the helping realtionship.


When counselors use accurate __ of content and feeling, clients feel that they really have been understood.


The approach used by ___ is very effective for treating depression. Cognitive therapy


Counselors who apply their complete thinking, feeling, and behavior toward the client are using the helping skill referred to as __


The __ approach tries to explore what is affecting the client in the here-and-now.

listening, attending, and inquiring

___, ___, and ___ are exampls of helping skills


__ recognized the importance of a person's position in the family constellation. Individual Psychology.


When the client directs toward the counselor feelings that were once attached to a significant other, __ takes place.


__ introduced the concept of observational learning. Social Learning Theory.

Systematic desensitization

__ __ is a process of eliminating anxiety by pairing the anxiety-evoking situation with the relaxing response.

behavior modification

A basic premis of __ __ is that people are influenced by the consequences of their behavior.

Client-centered view

The __ __ __ holds that individuals are essentially good in nature with a tendency toward growth and productivity.

implosive therapy

Flooding the client with anxiety-producing stimulie within a safe setting is called __ __


Counselors who keep confidentiality, are reliable, and are dependable slowly develop ____


The concept of collective unconscious was introduced by ___


mental health consulatation


helping skills: listening, attending, and inquiring by ___


paradoxical intention

paradoxical intention

is a therapeutic strategy in which the client is encouraged to engage in, and even intensify, the problematic, or inappropriate behavior(s).


focusing: "is a processin which you make conscious contact with a special kind of internal bodily awareness... (or) felt sense... (where) you will discover the body finding its own way provides its own answers to many of your problems"


reality therapy


neo-Freudian who




consultation modalities



Parsons, Frank

father of guidance






process consultation


behavior modification


Behavior Therapy

psychological problems arise from irrational thought patterns

Albert Ellis has developed a system of hlping known as rational-emotive therapy. A basic premise of this theory is that

explore the client's problems in the here-and-now.

Gestalt therapy (counseling), developed by Perls, is based on a number of principles. One of these is ...

the counselor and client work together as equals to solve client problems.

A mojor belief associated with psycholanalytic therapy holds that


Glasser's reality therapy focuses on ...


Systematic desensitization is a technique whereby a client resolves irrational fears through gradual exposure to the fear producting stimulus. It was first developed as a therapy technique by ___

psychological problems arise from irrational thought patterns

Albert Ellis has nas devleoped a stystem of helping known as rational-emotive therapy. A basic premise of this theory is that ...

explore the client's problems in the here-and-

Gestalt therapy (counseling), developed by Perls, is based on a number of principles. One of these is

the counselor and client work together as equals to solve client problems

a major belief associated with psychoanalytic therapy holds that


Glasser's reality therapy focuses on __


Systematic desensitization is a technique whereby a client resolves irrational fears through gradual exposure to the fear producing stiumulus. It was first developed as a therapy technique by __

accent and/or contradict verbals.

Counselors need to pay attention not only to verbal but also to nonerbal behavior. They need to be aware that nonverbals ...

most behavior is learned, and therefore subject to change through specifically designed techniques

A counselor whose theoretical orientation comes from behavioral counseling believes that ....

c. insight

Carkhuff has developed scales for measuring the core conditions for effective counseling. Which of the following is not one of the core conditions? a. empathy, b. respect, c. insight, d. genuineness


Particular counseling activities are usually associated with their primary proponents. For example, psychodrama is to Moreno as hot seat is to ____

a. summarizing

Some counseling techniques are appropriate for individual counseling, whereas others apply more to group counseling. Which of the following counselor skills applies to individual as well as group counseling? a. summarizing, b. consensus taking, c. moderating, d. linking

Adler, Sullivan, and Horney

Which of the following are new-Freudians?

counseling is a clearly defined helping relationship

The counseling profession is based on some general philosophical propositions. Which is not one of them?

restatement of content

Which counselor intervention most closely follows client verbalizations?


Which is not one of the core elements of the helping relationship?

human processes

According to Schein, the path to increasing organizational effectiveness is to focus on

satisfy lower-order needs

Maslow believes that individuals are unable to reach self-actualization until they


Counselors who choose their approach and techniques according to the needs and capacity of each individual client are said to be __

concreteness, genuineness, self-disclosure, and respect.

Carkhuff has defined the core dimensions of counseling. Some of these are ...


The mediator is an important dimension of which type of consultation?

additive empathy

When a counselor's response includes congruent ideas and feelings from another frame of reference to facilitate client exploration, Ivey would say that the counselor is using ...

testing automatic thoughts, identifying maladaptive assumptions, generating alternative responses and behaviors.

What applies to Beck's cognitive therapy

attending to feelings

What does not apply to Beck's CT?

responding with questions back to the client

When clients ask decision-oriented questions, counselors serve them best by

indirect helping

Consultation is an example of __ __

two important elements are the helper's self-image and the client's perceptions of the helper.

What applies to the social influence core of the helping relationship?

personal responsibility, goodness of human nature, meaning of life

Compatible with the existential approach


not compatible with the existential approach

empathic response

reflect the content, emotional tone, and language style of the client.

subtractive empathy

the counselor reponse subtracts from the helping process and takes something away from the client.

basic empathy

the counselor response parallels the client statement

Hershenson and Power

offer four general tenets that form the philosophical bases of mental helath counseling.

first tenets (Hershenson and Power)

behavior is an interaction between client and their environments at a particular point in time.

second tenet (Hershenson and Power)

human development naturally tends toward healthy growth.

third tenet (Hershenson and Power)

the helping relationship consists of a partnership of counselor and client working together to solve client problems by activating client assets, developing client skills, and utilizing environmental resources so as to decrease client problems and increase client coping skills.

fourth tenet (Hershenson and Power)

counselors seek to help clients by using skills, techniques,and methods that research has shown to be effective.

BASIC ID (Multimodal therapy)

Behavior (activity, busyness) Affect (focus on emotions, depth), Sensation (attention to pleasure and pain, bodily sensations), Imagery (fantasy, daydreaming, thinking in pictures), Cognition (thinking, analyzing, planning, reasoning) Interpersnal (social relations, intimacy, involvement with others), Drugs/Biology (health habits, medication, substance use)

Arnold Lazarus

Multimodal therapy


defines four core elements on which this relationship is built: 1. human relations, 2. social infulence, 3. skills, 4. theory

guidelines for formulating empathic responses

Carhuff and Rodgers ... key element in the helping relationship... rank of 3 out of 5 is acceptable on the scale


implies being true to self in the client-counselorrelationship. The genuine counselor's ideas, feelings, and behaviors remain consistent with his or her value system, theroietical orientation, and philosophical position. This counselor maintains confidence and remains comfortable with self-disclosure. Measured too on a 5 point scale with 3 as a minimum for being acceptable

Social influence

The __ __ core represents another arean of importance in the heloping relationship. THis core includes helper self-image- competence, power, and intimacy- and helpee receptiveness to helper- trustworhtiness, attractiveness, and expertise.

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