450 terms

Final Exam

All worksheets; Exam 1, 2, & 3
According to the systems perspective, most organizations have one working part rather than many sub-components. (T/F)
Psychology and sociology have contributed many theories and concepts to the field of organizational behavior. (T/F)
Counterproductive work behaviors include threats and work avoidance. (T/F)
Organizational effectiveness depends on the organization's capacity to acquire, share, use and store valuable knowledge. (T/F)
Absenteeism is lower in organizations with general sick leave. (T/F)
Stakeholders are shareholders, customers, suppliers, governments and any other groups with a vested interest in the organization. (T/F)
One widely mentioned high-performance work practice is employee involvement. (T/F)
Three challenges organizations are facing globalization, increasing workforce diversity and emerging employment relationships. (T/F)
Most organizational behavior theories have been developed by OB scholars rather than from other disciplines. (T/F)
All organizations have a collective sense of purpose, whether it's producing oil or creating the fastest Internet search engine. (T/F)
Social entities are called organizations only when their members have complete agreement on the goals they want to achieve. (T/F)
Given that OB experts have been accumulating a distinct knowledge about behavior within organizations, OB is referred to as a field of study. (T/F)
Globalization refers to economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world. (T/F)
A perspective that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital is called high-performance work practices. (T/F)
The knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees is an example of structural capital. (T/F)
____ is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations.
In the field of organizational behavior, organizations are best described as:
D. groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose.
Organizational behavior views organizations as:
C. open systems.
Which of the following is a form of knowledge acquisition?
B. Experimentation.
Intellectual capital refers to:
B. the stock of knowledge that resides in an organization.
Self-verification stabilizes our self-concept. (T/F)
The 'Big Five' personality dimensions represent five clusters that represent most personality traits. (T/F)
People perform better in most employment situations when they have a strong external locus of control. (T/F)
The ideal situation in organizations is to have employees whose values are perfectly congruent with the organization's values. (T/F)
People with a high score on the neuroticism personality dimension tend to be more relaxed, secure and calm. (T/F)
One problem with applying the individual rights principle of ethical decision making is that one individual right may conflict with another. (T/F)
Evidence regarding the effectiveness of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Jung's psychological types is inconclusive. (T/F)
Ethically sensitive people recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue. (T/F)
The three structural dimensions of self-concept are: complexity, consistency, and clarity. (T/F)
People with high power distance expect relatively equal power sharing. (T/F)
People from cultures with a short-term orientation tend to value assertiveness, competitiveness and materialism. (T/F)
Situational factors are working conditions within the employee's control. (T/F)
The forces within a person affect the employee's motivation. (T/F)
Espoused values represent the values that you and your spouse have in common. (T/F)
All of these factors directly influence an employee's voluntary behavior and performance EXCEPT:
D. Moral intensity
Which of these factors directly influences an employee's voluntary behavior and performance?
E. Only 'A' and 'B'
Which of the following refers to the fact that motivation is goal-directed, not random?
B. Direction
___ are the natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better.
D. Aptitude
Which of these refers to a person's beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate or necessary in a particular situation?
B. Role perceptions
An individual's personality:
C. Is less evident in situations where social norms, reward systems, and other conditions constrain behavior.
The recency effect has occurred when a person's annual performance evaluation is heavily influenced by performance results over the last month. (T/F)
Interacting with people from other backgrounds is more likely to minimize perceptual biases when these people have equal status with you throughout the interaction. (T/F)
Confirmation bias causes use to screen out information that is contrary to our values and assumptions. (T/F)
Self-fulfilling prophecy may result in either better or worse performance than if the employee is not exposed to the self-fulfilling prophecy effect. (T/F)
Fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute the behavior of other people to internal factors more than external factors. (T/F)
Our emotions influence what we recognize or screen out. (T/F)
When making an internal or external attribution about a person's behavior, we tend to look at whether the person has acted this way in the past and other situations and whether other people act similarly in this situation. (T/F)
The primacy effect occurs because we have a strong need to quickly make sense of other people. (T/F)
Selective attention occurs after incoming information is organized and interpreted. (T/F)
The easiest way to minimize stereotyping is by preventing the activation of stereotypes in our heads. (T/F)
Social identity theory states that we define ourselves in terms of our differences with people who belong to other social categories. (T/F)
When people empathize with others, it leads to a higher likelihood of the occurrence of attribution errors. (T/F)
Tacit knowledge is mainly learned through observation and experience. (T/F)
Social identity is a comparative process, and that comparison begins with categorical thinking. (T/F)
People who learn to empathize with others are less likely to engage in attribution errors. (T/F)
Selective attention is a component of:
B. The perceptual process
Our likelihood of noticing a person or object depends on its:
E. All of the above
Prejudice and discrimination are most closely tied to which of these concepts?
E. Stereotyping
Someone who is new to the job and has a low sense of achievement is:
D. More vulnerable to the supervisor's self-fulfilling prophecies of that employee
Which of the following is a perspective of learning emphasizing the environment rather than human thought as the source of all learning?
D. Behavior modification
Attitudes consist of the following three components: emotions, beliefs, and behaviors. (T/F)
Employees tend to have higher organizational commitment when their personal values differ from the company's values. (T/F)
People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience. (T/F)
Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees, corporate leaders must demonstrate their trust in those employees. (T/F)
Eustress refers to the short-term causes of stress, whereas distress refers to long-term causes. (T/F)
Emotional dissonance occurs when we use our emotional intelligence on others but other people do not use their emotional intelligence on us. (T/F)
Trust, employee involvement, and organizational comprehension tend to increase organizational commitment. (T/F)
Sexual harassment is a type of stressor. (T/F)
Cognitive dissonance is more likely to occur when the dissonant behavior is known to everyone, was done voluntarily and can't be undone. (T/F)
Emotional intelligence can be learned to some extent. (T/F)
Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors. (T/F)
According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, some unsatisfied employees engage in "voice" by constructively recommending solutions to the source of their dissatisfaction. (T/F)
Emotions are brief events or "episodes". (T/F)
Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual obligation to provide a minimum amount of time and effort to the organization in return for a fair day's pay from the organization. (T/F)
Employees are more likely to quit their jobs and be absent from work if they are dissatisfied with their jobs. (T/F)
Anger, fear, joy, and sadness represent:
C. Type of emotions
Which of these statements represents the feelings dimension of attitudes?
A. I don't like how my boss treats his employees
Which of these countries is more likely to accept of tolerate, than any other country, people who display their true emotions at work?
D. Italy
The highest level of emotional intelligence is:
E. None of the above
Self-awareness is the ____ level of ____.
A. Lowest, emotional intelligence
Which organizational behavior perspective discusses inputs, outputs, and feedback?
B. Open systems
Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations are:
E. Called values
Which of these statements is consistent with the five anchors of organizational behavior?
D. The field of organizational behavior should rely on other disciplines for some of its theory development
The open systems anchor of organizational behavior states that:
A. Organization affect and are affected by their external environments
Which of the following concepts are closely associated with corporate social responsibility?
E. Both 'B' and 'C'
Globalization occurs when an organization:
A. Increases its connectivity with people and organizations in other parts of the world
[Scenario: Allison and the Anchors of OB] To collect and analyzer information systematically, OB researchers rely on:
E. Both 'A' and 'C'
The perspective that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital is called:
Organizational citizenship refers to:
B. Employee behaviors that extend beyond normal job duties
Sabotage, threatening harm, and insulting other represent:
A. Three forms of counterproductive work behaviors
The triple bottom line philosophy says that:
E. Companies should try to support the economic, social, and environmental spheres of sustainability
In order for something to be called an organization it must have buildings and equipment. (T/F)
Employees who experience job dissatisfaction or work-related stress are more likely to be absent or late for work. (T/F)
Everyone is a manager. (T/F)
According to the MARS model of individual behavior and performance, employee performance will remain high even if one of the four factors significantly wakens. (T/F)
Conscientiousness refers to the extent that people are sensitive, flexible, creative, and curious. (T/F)
The distributive justice principle of ethical decision making people who are similar in relevant ways should receive dissimilar benefits and burdens based on their individual rights. (T/F)
Aptitudes are natural talents that help individuals to learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better than pother people. (T/F)
Three personality traits are care, utilitarianism, and distributive justice. (T/F)
Personality is a relatively stable pattern of behaviors and internal states that explains a person's behavioral tendencies. (T/F)
Motivation affects a person's ___ of voluntary behavior.
A. Direction, intensity, and persistence
Schwartz's model organizes ___ into ___.
D. Values, ten broader domains
One problem with the utilitarian principle of ethical decision making is that:
D. It is almost impossible to evaluate the benefits or costs of many decisions
Competencies include:
D. All of the above
Incongruence between a company's dominant values and an employee's values is known to:
D. All of the above
People with a high ___ value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism.
E. Achievement orientation
___ is the amount of effort allocated to the goal.
C. Intensity
__ refers to an individual's self-beliefs and self-evaluations.
A. Self-concept
___ represents the forces within a person that affect the direct, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior.
A. Motivation
Self-fulfilling prophecy tends to have a stronger effect on employees who are new to the job than on employees who have worked in that job for a few years. (T/F)
Mental models that give us a rich understanding of one's environment may cause us to screen out or ineffectively organize information in another environment. (T/F)
Tacit knowledge is mainly learned through observation and experience. (T/F)
Employee satisfaction with work accomplishments is influenced to a large degree by whether they take credit for those accomplishments or attributes the success to external causes. (T/F)
According to the halo effect, a supervisor's initial expectations of you influence your behavior so that you are more likely to act consistently with those expectations. (T/F)
According to the Johari Window, the hidden area is reduced through disclosure. (T/F)
Homogenization and differentiation are two activities in the process of forming and maintaining our social identity. (T/F)
According to social learning theory, people can reinforce heir own behavior. (T/F)
Consistency, consensus and distinctiveness are:
C. The three rules determining whether to make an internal or external attribution
Which of the following is an example of punishment?
A. The organization takes away some of your paycheck to cover the cost of a machine that you carelessly broke
Reflecting and experimenting are components of:
B. Experiential learning
The statement "First impressions are lasting impressions" best represents the premises of:
A. Primacy effect
The philosophy of positive organizational behavior states that:
C. Focusing on the positive rather than negative aspects of life will improve organizational success and individual well-being
___ is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intent or behavior of other person.
B. Trust
The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called:
D. Cognitive dissonance
Employees with strong organizational commitment are more likely to:
A. Engage in organizational citizenship behaviors
Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's wellbeing. (T/F)
Your boss is usually able to calm employees when they are upset and to get staff enthusiastic about an otherwise mundane activity. This ability probably means that your boss has:
A. The highest level of emotional intelligence
Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors.
Emotional labor refers to:
A. The effort, planning, and control needed to express organizational desired emotions during interpersonal transactions
Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees. (T/F)
Motivation is closely related to the concept of employee engagement. (T/F)
Overreward inequity occurs whenever other people receive less money than you do. (T/F)
Underreward inequity occurs when your outcome/input ratio is lower than the outcome/input ratio of a comparison other. (T/F)
One advantage of ERG Theory over Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory is that the ERG model seems to explain human motivation somewhat better. (T/F)
Goal setting is more effective when employees can easily complete the goals assigned to them. (T/F)
Distributive justice increases directly with the extent that the decision allows voice, can be appealed, and has an unbiased decision maker. (T/F)
The problem with the concept of employee engagement is that it lacks theoretical foundation. (T/F)
To learn about their progress towards goal accomplishment, employees usually prefer feedback from supervisors and other people. (T/F)
According to Learned Needs Theory, companies should hire leaders with a strong need for personalized power. (T/F)
Four-drive Theory recommends keeping all four drives in "balance"; that is, organizations should avoid too much or too little opportunity to fulfill each drive. (T/F)
Maslow is credited for bringing a mechanistic perspective to the study of motivation. (T/F)
In Expectancy Theory, the performance-to-outcome expectancy represents the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual places on an outcome. (T/F)
Employees who experience feelings of inequity tend to change their comparison other:
E. If they can't alter the outcome/input ratio through other means
It is often difficult to maintain feelings of equity among employees because:
D. Each employee has different opinions regarding which inputs should be regarded and which outcomes are more valuable than others
Employees who believe that accomplishing a particular task will almost certainly result in a day off with pay would have:
B. A P-to-O expectancy close to 1
ABC Corp. introduced a training program that ensured everyone had the required knowledge and skills to perform the work. The company also brought in a performance-based reward system that accurately identified employees who performed better than others. These practices improve employee motivation by:
E. Both 'C' and 'D'
With respect to procedural justice, the "value-expressive" function which "voice" provides refers to:
B. The way employees feel after voicing their opinions
In the Four-drive Theory, the drive ___ is the drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with others.
A. To bond
People who are 'equity sensitive' tend to:
E. Want their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the outcome/input ratio of the comparison other
Which of the following actions would increase employee motivation mainly by enhancing their effort-to-performance expectancy?
D. Let employees know that their chances of performing successfully are good
Adam Smith introduced the principles of Scientific Management. (T/F)
Some critics argue that financial regards discourage creativity and distract employees from the meaningfulness of the work itself. (T/F)
The economic benefits of job specialization were discovered in the 1950s. (T/F)
Two ways to enrich jobs are by clustering jobs into natural groups and by establishing client relationships. (T/F)
Frederick Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory casts more of a spotlight on the job itself (rather than the work environment) as an important source of employee motivation. (T/F)
One of the most important characteristics of empowerment is that it is a personality trait. (T/F)
When Adam Smith reported on how 10 pin makers working together could produce many times more pins than if they worked alone, Smith was describing the benefits of job enrichment. (T/F)
Self-leadership suggests that goals should be set by the employee's supervisor with or without the employee's involvement. (T/F)
Companies are applying job specialization when employees are made directly responsible for specific customers and having them communicate directly with those customers. (T/F)
Motivator-Hygiene Theory highlights the idea that job content is an important source of employee motivation. (T/F)
A large retail organization previously divided work among its four employee benefits staff into distinct specializations. One person answered all questions about superannuation (pension plans), another answered all questions about various forms of paid time off (e.g. vacations), and so on. These jobs were recently restructured so that each employee benefits person answers all questions for people in a particular geographic area. For example, one staff member is responsible for all employee benefits inquiries from anyone in a particular geographic region. This job restructuring is an example of:
B. Job enrichment
Job evaluation and skill-based pay plans are both considered:
E. None of the answers apply
Which reward system tends to discourage poor performers from voluntarily leaving the organization?
A. Membership and seniority-based pay
Which of the following is NOT a core job characteristic in the job characteristics model?
D. Experienced meaningfulness
Which of the following doe NOT occur at very high levels of job specialization?
A. Product quality increases while the quantity of output decreases
When jobs are highly independent, employers should:
E.) Use a team-based reward and use an organizational-based reward system
Which of the following is NOT a component of empowerment?
C. Mental imagery
Scientific management includes which of the following?
B. Systematically dividing a job into its smallest possible elements and assigning these divided tasks to employees who are best qualified to perform them
Employees at CyberTech perform repetitive jobs that have resulted in boredom as well as repetitive strain injury. Technology makes it difficult to combine existing jobs, but the company wants to make employees more multiskilled. Which of the following would best help CyberTech to improve this situation?
D. Introduce job rotation
Self-monitoring and designing natural rewards are both:
D. Part of the self-leadership process
Employees tend to be less creative in organizations that punish failure. (T/F)
Decision makers have a need to reduce uncertainty, so they tend to focus on solutions before fully understanding the problem. (T/F)
Employee involvement potentially improves decision-making quality and commitment. (T/F)
The higher the level of employee involvement, the more influence people have over the decision process. (T/F)
Satisficing occurs when people continue on a failing course of action. (T/F)
Knowledge and experience can undermine creativity because it can lead to routinization of that knowledge. (T/F)
Creative people tend to have a high need for social approval. (T/F)
People are the most creative when management puts intense pressure on them to produce creative ideas. (T/F)
Typically, creative people possess less knowledge and experience on the subject than experts in the field. (T/F)
Ill-defined problems require a non-programmed decision process. (T/F)
Which of the following will improve creativity?
D. All of these would improve creativity
Which of the following is a potential problem when evaluating and choosing alternatives in decision making?
D. All of these are potential problems
Employees probably should not make the decision alone (without the manager's involvement) when:
A. Their goals and norms conflict with the organization's objectives
Need for stimulation, the ability to synthesize ideas, and low need for social approval are characteristics of:
A. People who tend to be more creative
Perceptual defense causes us to:
D. Block out bad news or information that threatens our self-concept
Which of the following decision-making activities tends to make the most use of tacit knowledge?
A. Intuition
The concept of bounded rationality holds that:
B. Decision makers process limited and imperfect information and therefor rarely select the best choice
Establishing a preset level at which the decision is abandoned or re-evaluated is recommended mainly to:
C. Minimize escalation of commitment
Employee involvement tends to have which of the following benefits in decision making?
E. All of these statements are correct
Which of the following is NOT a consequence of post-decisional justification?
C. The individual continues to look for alternatives better than the one selected
Diverse teams have faultlines that may split the team into subgroups along gender, ethnic or other dimensions. (T/F)
Diversity among team members tends to undermine cohesion. (T/F)
Companies with the best team dynamics are more likely to have team-based rewards and encourage interaction among team members. (T/F)
To maximize cohesiveness, the team should be as small as possible without jeopardizing its ability to accomplish the task. (T/F)
Reciprocal interdependence is the highest level of task interdependence in organizations. (T/F)
Evaluation apprehension is most common in meetings attended by people with different levels or status or expertise. (T/F)
The nominal group technique tends to produce more and better ideas than do traditional interacting groups. (T/F)
Forming, storming, and norming are the three main levels of task interdependence. (T/F)
Team members rarely conform to team norms unless other team members apply reinforcement or punishment. (T/F)
One of the rules of brainstorming is that no one is allowed to piggyback or build on the ideas of other team members. (T/F)
All of the following organizational environment features potentially affects team effectiveness EXCEPT which one?
D. Team size
Brainstorming requires team members to:
E. Do none of these
Calculus, knowledge and identification are:
C. Three foundations of trust in teams
Employees tend to join a virtual or conventional team with:
A. A moderate or high level of trust in their new team mebers
Employees should almost always be organized into teams when they have:
E. Reciprocal interdependence
Compared to people in low-cohesion teams, members of high cohesion teams:
B. Are more likely to resolve conflicts swiftly and effectively
Calculus-based trust:
B. Is the minimum level of trust to hold a relationship together
How do norms affect the behavior of team members?
C. Norms help the team regulate and guide the behaviors of its members
Which of these statements about team roles is FALSE?
E. A team role is almost always assigned to the same person for the life of the team
Teams have which of the following features?
D. All of the above
Needs Hierarchy Theory explains how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources.(T/F)
According to Four-drive Theory, organizations maximize motivation by focusing employees on opportunities to fulfill only one of the four drives. (T/F)
The stronger your needs, the less motivated you are to fulfill them. (T/F)
Abraham Maslow was the first to recognize that human thoughts play a role in motivation. (T/F)
According to ERG Theory, a person can regress down the hierarchy of needs when they fail to fulfill higher needs. (T/F)
Research suggests that feedback originating only from the supervisor provides more complete and accurate information than feedback received through a 360-degree process. (T/F)
In the context of motivation, drives are also called primary needs, fundamental needs, or innate needs. (T/F)
People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that require them to mediate conflicts. (T/F)
Goal setting tends to be more effective when the goals are specific rather than general. (T/F)
Expectations of new workforce entrants has:
A. Made employee motivation less relevant as an influence on job performance; B. Made it less difficult to motivate employees using financial rewards; C. Made it more difficult to identify what motivates employees; D. made it impossible to use any form of goal setting
Goal setting is most effective when:
B. The goals stretch the employee's abilities and motivation
The distributive justice rule applies the concept of:
C. Equity
Which drive in the Four-drive Theory is reactive rather than proactive?
C. Drive to defend
Voice and the right to appeal are two important practices that influence:
D. Perceptions of procedural justice
One advantage of competency-based rewards is that measuring employee competencies is mostly done through objective measurement methods. (T/F)
Scientific Management is the process of systematically dividing work into its smallest possible elements and standardizing work activities to achieve maximum efficiency. (T/F)
Job specialization increases training costs and makes it more difficult for companies to match employee aptitudes to jobs for which they are best suited. (T/F)
Self-leadership borrows ideas from social learning theory and research in sports psychology on constructive thought processes. (T/F)
Research suggests that men and women differ in their attitudes toward money. (T/F)
Empowerment flourishes in organizations with a learning orientation. (T/F)
People with a high power distance give money a low priority in their lives. (T/F)
One problem with linking rewards to job performance is that managers rely on different criteria when estimating employee performance levels. (T/F)
Job enlargement increases skill variety. (T/F)
The philosophy behind Scientific Management is to increase job enrichment and decreases job specialization. (T/F)
Which of the following systematically evaluates the worth of each job within the organization?
C. Job evaluation
Share option plans:
B. Give employees the right to purchase company shares at a future date at a predetermined price
The extent of person's self-leadership is dependent on ___ and ___ factors.
B. Situational, personal
Which of the following is an individual incentive?
B. Piece-rate plans
___ represents an employee's experienced meaningfulness in their work, a sense of self-determination, confidence in their abilities, and a sense that their work has an impact on the company's success?
C. Empowerment
Which of the following is an advantage of job specialization?
B. Jobs can be mastered quickly
One of the reasons people use satisficing when making decisions rather than maximization is that it takes more information processing capacity than people possess or are willing to use to choose the best alternative. (T/F)
Intuition allows us to draw on our tacit knowledge to guide our decision preferences. (T/F)
Escalation of commitment occurs when employees increase their support for a decision because most of their colleagues also support that decision. (T/F)
Systematic evaluation of alternatives helps to increase the use of implicit favorites and satisficing in the decision process. (T/F)
The rational choice paradigm assumes that decision makers have limited information-processing capabilities and engage in a limited search for alternatives. (T/F)
People are creative because they work in creative environments, not because of any differences in their ability of personality. (T/F)
When should decision makers bypass the search for alternative solutions and development of new solutions?
D. In most programmed decision-making situations
Which of the following occurs during the incubation stage of the creative process?
D. Divergent thinking
The purely rational model of decision making is rarely practiced in reality because:
C. It assumes that people are efficient and logical in their information processing
The tendency for people to dislike losing a particular amount more than they like gaining the same amount is called:
E. Prospect theory
Satisficing refers to:
A. The tendency to choose an alternative that is good enough rather than the best
The benefits of employee involvement increase with:
E. The novelty and complexity of the problem or opportunity
The tendency to define problems in terms of a preferred solution occurs because:
E. Only 'A' and 'B'
Escalation of commitment can be minimized by ensuring that:
B. Those who choose the decision are different from those who implement and evaluate it
Incubation and verification are:
A. Stages of the creative process
Some ___ are just people assembled together without any necessary ___.
A. Groups, interdependence
Virtual teams are best described as:
B. Cross-functional groups of employees that operate across space, time and organizational boundaries
In which decision-making structure do participants typically meet, but only interact with each other for part of the meeting?
B. Nominal group technique
Team success, team size, and member similarity are three:
A. Of the main factors influencing team cohesiveness
Groupthink is cause by:
E. All of these factors cause groupthink
Media richness refers to the financial cost of using the medium relative to its frequency of use in the organization. (T/F)
Maintaining eye contact to show interest in someone's conversation is one of the few forms of nonverbal communication that transmits common meaning across all cultures. (T/F)
During times of uncertainty, a company newsletter or similar formal communication activity can effectively replace the informal grapevine. (T/F)
Research has found that women are generally more sensitive than are men to nonverbal communication. (T/F)
Language differences represent one of the most obvious cross-cultural communication challenges. (T/F)
Online forums and instant messaging are two examples of social networking technologies. (T/F)
Flaming refers to the capacity of an organization to transmit information more quickly through computer networks than through traditional paper media. (T/F)
Multi-communicating is possible because of the reduced sensory demand for most forms of computer-mediated communication. (T/F)
People who experience social isolation are more susceptible to physical and mental illness. (T/F)
Information overload occurs when a person's information-processing capacity exceeds the jobs information load. (T/F)
The level of information overload is a function of:
B. The receiver's information-processing capacity and the actual information load received
Showing interest and clarifying the message are two activities associated with which active listening process?
B. Responding
What effect does 'noise' have in the communication model?
A. It distorts and obscures the senders intended message
D. Helps employees to make sense of their workplace when the information is not available through formal channels
Which of the following represents a form of nonverbal communication?
D. All of the above
Which of these communication channels has the highest media richness?
D. Video conferencing
In the communication process model, what happens immediately after the receiver receives the encoded message?
C. The receiver decodes the received message
The organizational grapevine is usually transmitted:
E. From a small number of senders to a larger number of receivers
What does the textbook recommend that corporate leaders should do with the organizational grapevine?
B. Use the grapevine as a signal of employee anxiety and view it as a valid competitor to the company's formal communication system
Which of the following activities helps us to cope with information overload?
E. All of the above
Employees are losing their expert power as society moves from an industrial to a knowledge-based economy. (T/F)
Extreme forms of assertiveness include blackmailing colleagues. (T/F)
Organizational politics flourish when resource allocation decisions are ambiguous and complex with no formal rules. (T/F)
Even though you should be visiting clients most of the time, you make a point of stopping by the office each day so your boss sees that you are working. This increases your power by increasing your centrality. (T/F)
Impression management is a common strategy for people trying to get ahead in the workplace. (T/F)
Studies have found that people with power over others have more difficulty empathizing. (T/F)
Legitimate pwoer is an agreement between people that one person has the right to request specific behaviors from the other person. (T/F)
Supervisors who use ingratiation and impression management tactics tend to lose the respect of their staff. (T/F)
Power is the act of changing another person's attitudes and behavior. (T/F)
An employee's ability to influence others increases as the source of his or her power becomes more substitutable. (T/F)
Which of the following statements about power is FALSE?
D. Power exists only when one person has something of value for a second person, but the second person has nothing of value for the first person
The capacity to influence others in organizational settings is known as:
E. Power
Which of the following is the LEAST forceful influence tactic?
A. Ingratiation
Exchange and ingratiation are:
E. Two forms of influence
Which of the following is NOT identified in the textbook as a form of influence?
D. Visibility
Referent power is typically associated with:
E. Charisma
Which of the following statements about countervailing power in organizational relationships is TRUE?
C. Countervailing power is the weaker party's power to maintain the stronger party's continued participation in the relationship
Which of the following is NOT a strategy for coping with uncertainty?
B. Substitution
Legitimate, referent, and expert are:
C. Different sources of organizational power
Your team has been put in charge of a major project involving a client. Although the organization has many clients, this is the largest source of revue and affects the work of several other teams in the organization. The project requires continuous involvement with the client, so any problems with the client are immediately felt by other in the organization. According to the model of power, your team has:
B. A high degree of centrality
ADR usually begins with a meeting between employee and employer. (T/F)
Communication problems partly explain why conflict is more likely to occur in a multicultural workforce. (T/F)
Negotiators tend to be more competitive and less willing to give concessions when their audience directly observes the negotiations. (T/F)
Two employees from different departments who are evaluated on different performance criteria and compensated based on different reward systems are likely to experience conflict due to goal incompatibility. (T/F)
The view that conflict in organizations is bad is overly simplistic and in some cases incorrect. (T/F)
Communication and understanding interventions should be applied only after differentiation between the parties has been reduced. (T/F)
According to the bargaining zone model, the parties should begin negotiations by describing their resistance point to each other. (T/F)
As is the case in most cultures, making concessions symbolizes a negotiator's motivation to bargain in good faith. (T/F)
Increasing resources and creating more precise rules for the allocation of those resources represent two ways to increase conflict. (T/F)
An important rule for effective negotiations is to avoid using persuasive communication tactics since this often demonstrates weakness. (T/F)
Conflict is defined as:
C. A process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
Constructive conflict:
B. Encourages people to think about different points of view
Which of these is NOT a strategy identified by the conflict management experts as something that might reduce the level of relationship conflict during constructive conflict episodes?
D. Third-party conflict resolution
Which of these is NOT a source of conflict?
A. Cohesiveness
Which of the following sources of conflict is typically associated with mergers and acquisitions?
B. Differentiation
The potential for conflict between two employees would be highest under conditions of:
C. Reciprocal interdependence
The problem-solving interpersonal style of conflict has:
B. High assertiveness and high cooperativeness
According to research on gender and conflict management styles, women tend to adopt the ___ style, whereas men tend to adopt the ___ style.
D. Problem-solving, forcing
Increasing inventories between sequential work units tends to reduce potential conflict by:
E. Reducing task interdependence
Initial, target, and resistance represent three elements in:
B. The bargaining zone model
Shared leadership roles are formally assigned by the team. (T/F)
The implicit leadership perspective explains how perceptual processes cause people to inflate the importance of leadership in explaining organizational events. (T/F)
Transformational leaders shape a strategic vision of the future that focuses employees on a superordinate organizational goal. (T/F)
According to path-goal theory, supportive leadership is desirable for employees who work in teams with low cohesiveness. (T/F)
Path-goal leadership theory includes directive, supervisory, and integrity leadership styles. (T/F)
Unlike the traditional view of leadership, shared leadership lacks formal authority. (T/F)
Research indicates that university students value task-oriented instructors over people-oriented instructors. (T/F)
One problem with the transformational leadership perspective is that specific elements within it are culture-bound. (T/F)
According to the textbook, charismatic leadership differs from transformational leadership. (T/F)
According to the leadership substitutes theory, characteristics of the employee, task, or organization limit the leader's influence or make it unnecessary. (T/F)
Effective leaders:
D. Do all of the above
Which of these statements about leadership is FALSE?
C. Scholars began studying leadership after World War II
According to recent writing on the subject, which of the following competencies is/are characteristics of effective leaders?
E. All of these are leadership competencies
Which of these characteristics is reported by several large-scale studies as the most important leadership characteristic?
E. Integrity
Which of the following competencies is NOT a characteristic of effective leaders
A. Effective leaders have a high need for personalized power
Which of these statements about people-oriented and task-oriented leadership styles is FALSE?
B. People-oriented and task-oriented leadership styles are at opposite ends of a behavioral continuum
Path-goal theory argues that:
E. The most effective leader behavior depends on the situation
One problem with path-goal theory is that:
B. Some elements of the theory have not yet been studied
Which of the following statements about the leadership substitutes model is FALSE?
C. Leadership substitutes neutralize or replace transformational rather than transactional leadership
Transactional leaders:
A. Improve efficiency
Emotional contagion fulfills our drive to bond with others. (T/F)
Management by walking around occurs whenever senior executives get out of their offices and communicate face-to-face with employees. (T/F)
Email is a very good medium for communicating emotions. (T/F)
One dilemma in workspace design is the requirement to balance the need to encourage social interaction with the employees' need for privacy. (T/F)
In times of uncertainty, a company newsletter or similar formal communication activity can effectively replace the informal grapevine. (T/F)
The image used in the communication process model is that information is like fruit on a tree that needs to be picked. (T/F)
According to the communication process model, communication begins with forming the message, then encoding it. (T/F)
Management by walking around:
C. Minimizes the problem of filtering in the communication process
Which of these communication channels has the lowest media richness?
A. Newsletter
A financial institution wants to create online communities whereby employees can quickly receive information about a specific topic from colleagues throughout the organization. Which of the following communication media would likely work best in this situation?
B. Instant messaging
Buffering, summarizing and omitting are ways to:
A. Reduce information overload
Which of the following reduces information overload by increasing the person's information-processing capacity?
A. Using a filtering algorithm to screen out incoming e-mail
The three main components of active listening, in order, are:
A. Sensing, evaluating and responding
___ consists of technical language and acronyms as well as recognized words with specialized meaning in specific organizations or social groups.
A. Jargon
Research indicates that ingratiation is more commonly used by managers in high power distance cultures than by managers in low power distance cultures. (T/F)
Persuasion is the most common form of influence in high power distance cultures. (T/F)
How we dress and the way we behave politely toward others represents a type of influence strategy. (T/F)
Upward appeal is not considered a type of influence tactic. (T/F)
Displaying one's diplomas and degrees on office walls is one way professionals increase their visibility. (T/F)
Organizational politics can result in lower job satisfaction, and high levels of work-related stress. (T/F)
In any relationship, both parties have some degree of power over the other. (T/F)
The most appropriate influence tactic depends in party on the influencer's power base and position in the organization. (T/F)
Employees have ___, when others identify with them, like them, or otherwise respect them.
C. Referent power
In organizational settings, power is defined as:
B. The capacity to influence others
An employee has power in the organization only when he or she:
A. Has the authority to influence others
Which of these refers to availability of alternatives?
B. Substitutability
___ is part of a larger influence tactic called ___.
B. Ingratiation, impression management
Which of these is the most common form of influence in high power distance cultures?
A. Silent authority
Countervailing power refers to:
C. The capacity to keep someone who is more powerful than you exchanged in the relationship
People with high Machiavellian values tend to:
B. Frequently use pwoer to manipulate others towards their own personal goals
Managers should arbitrate decisions when employees cannot resolve their differences alone. (T/F)
The bargaining zone model of negotiations describes the best physical zone in which negotiations should occur. (T/F)
Mergers and acquisitions tend to increase conflict due to different values and beliefs. (T/F)
Conflict tends to escalate more with a win-lose than with a win-win orientation. (T/F)
The modern perspective on conflict is that an optimal level exist which is beneficial to the organization. (T/F)
In organizational conflict, scarce resources are typically identified as:
A. A source of conflict
When negotiators have an audience watching their progress in the negotiations, the aduience's negotiatior:
B. Pays more attention to saving face
Managers tend to prefer which of the following types of third-party interventions?
A. Inquisitor
The current perspective on organizational conflict is that:
E. Moderate levels of conflict are necessary and produce favorable outcomes
The two main forms of conflict are:
B. Constructive and socioemotional
Effective leaders are good at perceiving and expressing emotions, as well as regulating emotions in themselves and others. (T/F)
Transactional leaders are mainly change agents.(T/F)
The Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model identifies the following four leadership styles: telling, selling, participating, and deleagting. (T/F)
Leadership competencies identify leadership potential, not leadership performance. (T/F)
Servant leaders try to understand employee needs and facilitate their work performance. (T/F)
Attribution theory is a major component of which of these leadership perspectives?
B. Implicit leadership theory
Research on gender and leadership suggests that:
E. None of the above
Servant leadership emphasizes the notion that:
E. None of these
Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model states that the best leadership style depends on:
B. The availability of leadership substitutes
People tend to evaluate female leaders slightly less favorably than male leaders because:
B. They tend to rely on gender stereotypes and prototypes of leaders
Organic structures are better suited dynamic environments than to stable environments. (T/F)
Functional structures foster professional identity and permit greater specialization than most other forms of departmentalization. (T/F)
When work activities are too complex to standardize through extensive training for employees, companies need to coordinate work effort through precise job descriptions. (T/F)
Organizations tend to become less formalized as they age and grow in number of employees. (T/F)
The more diversified the environment, the more the firm would benefit from a divisionalized form of departmentalization. (T/F)
Concurrent engineering can be used to encourage informal communication as a coordinating mechanism. (T/F)
An organization's structure is mainly its organizational chart. (T/F)
Contingencies, such as size, technology, and environment do not necessarily determine an organization's structure. (T/F)
One of the main benefits of formal hierarchy as a coordinating mechanism is that it increases flexibility and responsiveness to customer needs. (T/F)
Informal communication as a coordinating mechanism is ineffective in non-routine situations. (T/F)
Which of these statements about decentralization is FALSE?
C. Organizations operating in diverse environments are more effective when they centralized decision making
Compared with divisionalized structures, functional structures are known to:
A. Create better economies of scale
The current trend is for companies to shift their divisionalized structures away from:
C. Geography
As soon as people divide work among themselves, they need to:
E. Rely on one of more coordinating mechanisms
For which type of environment should organizations adopt an organic structure?
B. Dynamic environments
Which of the following is NOT typically a problem with a functional structure?
C. It is more difficult to directly supervise employees within each department
Organic structures are better than mechanistic structures for:
A. Hostile environments
One of the defining characteristics of a matrix organizational structure is that it:
A. Overlays two organizational structures in order to leverage the benefits of both types of structure
Organizational size, technology, and environment are:
E. Three contingencies of organizational design
Candoo Ltd. will soon flatten its hierarchy by removing two of the five layers of management. If the number of employees in the organization remains constant, which of the following must also occur?
B. It must widen the span of control
Two companies should not merge if a bicultural audit determines that they have substantially different cultures. (T/F)
Shared mental models are part of an organization's culture. (T/F)
Companies with strong corporate cultures invariably have much higher performance than companies with weak cultures. (T/F)
Researchers have found that an organization's culture may be identified very easily and quickly by looking at one or two observable artifacts. (T/F)
corporate cults are preferred, because they help suppress subcultures within organizations. (T/F)
Adaptive cultures focus employees on the changing needs of customers and other stakeholders and support initiative and leadership to keep pace with these changes. (T/F)
Reality shock occurs when you perceive a discrepancy between your pre-employment expectations and on-the-job reality. (T/F)
A strong corporate culture bonds employees together and makes them feel part of the organization. (T/F)
During the role management stage of organizational socialization, employees are newcomers who test their pre-employment expectations with the received realities. (T/F)
The organizational cultures of most companies can be identified as mercenaries, fortresses or communes. (T/F)
Whenever an advertising firm lands a new contract, the successful team rings a loud bell and breaks our a bottle of champagne. In organizational culture, this practice would be considered:
B. A ceremony
How do mental models relate to the concept of organizational culture?
D. Mental models represent the values within an organization's culture
As an organization's culture gets stronger, it:
E. Makes it more difficult for decision makers to identify problems or opportunities outside the mental model of that culture
The best way to measure an organization's culture is to:
C. Conduct a careful analysis of many organizational artifacts
Most employees would say that ___ helped them adjust to their new job most.
C. Socialization agents
One of the first steps in a merger to minimize cultural clashes is to:
B. Conduct a bicultural audit
In the context of organizational socialization, the adjustment process is better for:
C. Newcomers with diverse work experience
To develop the most accurate estimate of an organization's culture, we should:
E. Answers A,B, and C only
What is the significance of artifacts in organizational cultures?
C. Artifacts represent the directly observable symbols and signs of an organization's culture
At meetings of a major consumer products firm, employees habitually stand up when the most senior executive at the meeting enter the room. This practice represents:
C. A ritual that probably symbolizes the organization's dominant culture
The urgency for change must always be initiated from a problem-oriented perspective in order to be effective. (T/F)
Unfreezing occurs by making the driving forces stronger, weakening the restraining forces, or a combination of both. (T/F)
Compared with quantum change, incremental change interventions involve less risk to the organization and tend to produce less resistance among affected employees. (T/F)
Change experts recommend introducing quantum change when the organization wants to overhaul the system quickly and decisively. (T/F)
To minimize resistance to change, change agents need to reduce the restraining forces rather than pushing harder on the driving forces. (T/F)
An important feature of parallel learning structures is that they operate within the existing organizational hierarchy. (T/F)
Appreciative inquiry tries to break away from the approach to change advocated by action research. (T/F)
The best way to manage resistance to change among those who will clearly lose out from the change is to introduce coercion practices. (T/F)
According to some experts, the subtle forms of resistance create the greatest obstacles to change because they are not as visible. (T/F)
One problem with negotiation is that it tends to produce compliance rather than commitment to the change process. (T/F)
Which of the following practices should be avoided when trying to bring about organizational change?
E. None of these
Which of these forces pushes organizations toward a new state of affairs?
B. Driving forces
A parallel learning structure:
B. Includes highly participative teams constructed alongside the formal organizational hierarchy
All of these represent reasons why people resist change EXCEPT:
E. Coercion
A major consumer-products company wanted to create a more entrepreneurial and marketing-oriented culture. After failing to bring about the change through middle management, senior executives worked directly with selected teams of front-line employees. These teams, which represented each area of the organization, worked on special projects outside the normal organizational structure. This intervention is closest to which organizational change strategy
C. Parallel learning structures
Which of the following strategies for minimizing resistance to change should occur when all other strategies are ineffective?
A. Coercion
In organizational change, unfreezing may occur by:
E. Doing both 'B' and 'D'
Which of these forces are commonly called resistance to change?
D. Restraining forces
Decreasing the driving forces and increasing the restraining forces:
E. Are related to none of these statements
Which of the following organizational change activities is related to 'bringing the entire system into the room'?
A. Future search conferences