APES Chapter 16 Waste Generation and Disposal Notes
Terms in this set (57)
Humans are the only organisms who _______?
generate unusable waste
material outputs from a system that are not useful or consumed
Which societies generate the most waste? Wealthy or poor?
refuse collected by municipalities from households, small businesses and institutions
municipal solid waste (MSW)
What percentage of MSW comes from homes?
What percentage of MSW comes from businesses?
the flow of solid waste that is disposed of
Why did we have a boom in MSW?
US victory in WWII led to the baby boom
What does the term "Throwaway Society" mean?
a society in which many items are made to be used once and thrown away, and people do not make much of an effort to save and reuse items
What are the main sources of waste generation in developed countries such as the US?
When broken down by composition, what type of product makes up the largest faction of MSW?
What types of waste can be composted? What do these products have in common that allows this?
food wastes; they hold nutrients necessary to the soil and worms
What are the major challenges that E-Waste poses, and how has it been dealt with so far?
These items contain toxic metals like mercury, lead and cadmium, which leach into the groundwater under a landfill. To address this, volunteer programs have been started to keep e-waste from making its way into landfills
Why is waste reduction generally considered to be the most important and effective of the "3 R's"?
when less material is used, less material is discarded; stops the problem at the root
What is preferable? Reuse or recycling? Why?
reuse: it required less energy and resources than recycling
How does the amount of MSW recycled in the US today compare with the amount recycled in 1980?
has increased from around 15% to 35%
How does composting work?
How do landfills handle solid waste?
1) Waste is transported to a landfill.
2) Waste is compacted.
3) Leachate collection system removes water and contaminates and carries them to a wastewater treatment plant
4) Landfill is capped and covered in soil and then planted with vegetation
5) Methane produced in closed cells is extracted and either burned off or collected for use as fule
What are the advantages of using landfills to handle local waste?
What are the disadvantages of using landfills to handle waste?
Why is leachate from landfills of concern?
What types of waste should not be handled by landfills?
a popular phrase promoting the idea of diverting materials from the waste stream (also known as the three R's)
reduce, reuse, recycle
an approach to waste management that seeks to cut waste by reducing the use of potential waste materials in the early stages of design and manufacture
using a product or material that was intended to be discarded
the process by which materials destined to become municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and converted into raw material that is then used to produce new objects
recycling a product into the same product
recycling one product into a different product
creation of organic matter (humus) by decomposition under controlled conditions to produce an organic-rich material that enhances soil structure, cation exchange capacity, and fertility
liquid that contains elevated levels of pollutants as a result of having passed through municipal solid waste (MSW) or contaminated soil
an engineered ground facility designed to hold municipal solid waste (MSW) with as little contamination of the surrounding environment as possible
a fee charged for disposing of material in a landfill or incinerator
the designation of a landfill location, typically through a regulatory process involving studies, written reports, and public hearings
the process of burning waste materials to reduce volume and mass, somethimes to generate electricity or heat
the residual nonorganic material that does not combust during incineration
residue collected at the bottom of the combustion chamber in a furnace
the residue collected from the chimney or exhaust pipe of a furnace
a system in which heat generated by incineration is used as an energy source rather than released into the atmosphere
liquid, solid, gaseous or sludge waste material that is harmful to humans or ecosystems
the common name for the Comprehensive Environment Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); a 1980 U.S. federal act that imposes a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries, funds the cleanup of abandoned and non-operating hazardous waste sites, and authorizes the federal government to respond directly to the release or threatened release of substances that may pose a threat to human health or the environment
contaminated industrial or commercial sites that may require environmental cleanup before they can be redeveloped or expanded
How does an incinerator work?
What are the advantages of using incinerators to handle local waste?
What are the disadvantages of using incinerators to handle waste?
Why are bottom and fly ash problematic?
In addition to ash, what other problematic emissions can come from incinerators?
What are the major sources for hazardous waste production?
What was the main goal of the RCRA, and how does it attempt to accomplish it?
What is the Superfund?
How are abandoned non-operating sites of hazardous pollution handled when it is not possible to identify or locate a responsible party?
How are brownfields typically addressed?
What are the principles of life-cycle analysis, and how does it help address the problem of waster generation?
Describe the principles of Integrated Waste Management, and how it might be applied to improve waste management in a city.
What are the disadvantages of composting?
when things decompose, they create methane, which can easily catch on fire
a systems tool that looks at the materials used and released throughout the lifetime of a product- from the procurement of raw materials through their manufacture, use and disposal (also known as cradle-to-grave analysis)
an approach to waste disposal that employs several waste reduction, management and disposal strategies in order to reduce the environmental impact of MSW
integrated waste management