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309 terms

CH 8 The Digestive System

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or/o-, stomat/o-
mouth
esophag/o-
esophagus
gastr/o-
stomach
enter/o-
small intestine
col.o-, colon/o-
large intestine
an/o-, proct/o-, rect/o-
rectum and anus
hepat/o-
liver
cholecyst/o-
gallbladder
pancreat/o-
pancreas
an/o-
anus and ring
chol/e-
bile, gall
proct/o-
anus, rectum
rect/o-
rectum, straight
sigmoid/o-
sigmoid colon
-emesis
vomiting
-lithiasis
presence of stones
-pepsia
digest, digestion
-phagia
eating, swallowing
accessory organs
organs that aid with digestion but are not part of teh digestive system. these include: the liver, gallbladder and pancreas
gastrointestinal tract
another way of describing the structures of the digestive system. it is broken into two sections: the upper GI tract and the lower GI tract. (gastr/o- stomach, intestin- intestinal, -al= pertaining to.)
upper GI tract
consists of the mouth, esophagus and stomach
lower GI tract
consists of the small and large intestines (aka bowels), the rectum and the anus
oral cavity aka mouth
the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth and the periodontium
lips aka labia
form the opening to the oral cavity. the lips hold the food in the mouth and aid the tongue and cheeks in guiding food between the teeth for chewing.
labial frenum
(upper and lower) narrow bands of tissue that attach the lips to the jaws
palate
forms the roof of the mouth.
hard palate
the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane
rugae
irregular ridges and folds in this mucous membrane
soft palate
the flexible posterior portion of the palate. it has the imp. role of closing off the nasal passage during swallowing to prevent food and liquid from moving upward into the nasal cavity
uvula
hangs from the free edge of the soft palate. during swallowing, it moves upward with the soft palate. it also plays an imp. role in snoring and in the formation of some speech sounds.
tongue
very strong, flexible, and muscular. it aids in speech and moves food during chewing and swallowing.
dorsum
upper surface of the tongue, has a tough protective covering and in some areas small bumps known as papillae.
papillae
small bumps on the dorsum that contain taste buds
taste buds
are the sensory receptors for the sense of taste
sublingual surface
part of the tongue, and the tissues that lie under the tongue, are covered with delicate highly vascular tissues. it is the presence of this rich blood supply under teh tongue that makes it suitable for administering certain medications by placing them sublingually where they are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream
lingual frenum
attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its motion
periodontium
consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth. (peri- surrounding, odonti- teeth, -um=noun ending)
gingiva aka gums
the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches and lines the cheeks.
dental arches aka upper and lower jaws
boney structures of the oral cavity that consists of the maxillary and mandibular arches. they firmly hold the teeth in position and fascilitate chewinig and speaking
temporomandibular joint aka TMJ
is formed at the back of the mouth where the maxillary and mandibular arches come together. the maxillary arch is attached to the skull and does not move, the mandibular arc is a seperate bone and is the movable part of this joint.
dentition
refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws
human dentition
consists of four types of teeth: incisors, canines (aka cuspids), premolars (bicuspids), and molars.
incisors and canines (cuspids)
used for biting and tearing
premolars (bicuspids) and molars
used for chewing and grinding
primary dentition aka deciduous dentition or baby teeth
consists of 20 teeth that are normally lost during childhood and are replaced by the permanent teeth. these include: 8 incisors, 4 canines, and 8 molars
permanent dentition
consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime. these include: 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars and 12 molars.
edentulous
means without teeth. it describes the situation after the natural permanent teeth have been lost.
occlusion
as used in dentistry, describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth.
malocclusion
any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth
crown
the portion of the tooth that is visible in the mouth
enamel
covers the teeth and is the hardest substance in the body
roots
hold the tooth securely in place within the dental arch.
cementum
protects the roots of the tooth and is strong but not as strong as enamel
cervix
the portion of the tooth where the crown and root meet
dentin
makes up the bulk of the tooth structure and is protected on the outer surfaces by enamel and cementum
pulp
consists of a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves that provide nutrients and innervation to the tooth. in the crown it is located in the pulp cavity and in the roots it continues through the root canal.
saliva
a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing.
salivary glands
secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth. they consists of three pairs: parotid glands, sublingual glands, submandibular glands
parotid glands
located on the face in front and slightly lower that each ear. the ducts for these glands are on the inside of the cheek near the upper molars
sublingual glands
are located on the floor or the mouth under the tongue along with their ducts.
submandibular glands
located on the floor of the mouth near the mandible along with their ducts
pharynx
the common passageway for both respiration and digestion
epiglottis
a lid like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea(windpipe) to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing.
esophagus
the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter aka cardiac sphincter aka gastroesophageal sphincter
a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach. the sphincter normally opens to allow the flow of food into the stomach and closes to prevent the stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus.
regurgitating
to flow backward
stomach
a sac-like organ composed of the fundus (upper, rounded part), body (main portion), antrum (lower part)
rugae
are the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach. glands located within these folds produce gastric juices that aid in digestion and mucus to create a protective coating on the lining of the stomach
pylorus
the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine.
pyloric sphincter
the ring like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine
small intestine
extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. the small intestine is a coiled organ up to 20 feet in length. the small intestine consists of three sections (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) where food is digested and the nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream
duodenum
the frist portion of the small intestine. the duodenum extends from the pylorus to the jejunum
jejunum
the middle portion of the small intestine. it extends from the duodenum to the ileum
ileum
the last and longest portion of the small intestine, it extends fro the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine
large intestine
extends from teh end of the small intestine to the anus. it is about twice as wide as teh small intestine but only one-fourth as long. it is here that the waste products of digestion are processed in preparation for excretion through the anus. the major part of the large intestine are the cecum, colon, rectum and anus
cecum
a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen. it extends from the end of the ileum to the beginning of the colon
ileocecal sphincter
the ring like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine
vermiform appendix aka appendix
hangs from the lower portion of the cecum. it consists of lymphoid tissue.
vermiform
refers to a worm like shape
colon
the longest portion of the large intestine is subdivided into four parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon.
ascending colon
travels upward from the cecum to the under surface of the liver.
transverse colon
passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen.
descending colon
travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon
sigmoid colon
an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below.
sigmoid
means S-shaped
rectum
the widest division of the large intestine, makes up the last 4 inches of the large intestine and ends at the anus
anus
the lower opening of the digestive tract. the flow of wast through the anus is controlled by the internal anal sphincter and the external anal sphincter
anorectal
refers to the anus and rectum as a single unit. (an/o- anus, rect-rectum, -al=pertaining to)
accessory digestive organs
play key roles in digestion but are not a part of the gastrointestinal tract. they are: the liver, the biliary tree, the gallbladder, the pancreas
liver
a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. it has several important functions related to removing toxins from the blood and turning food into the fuel and nutrients the body needs.
hepatic
pertaining to the liver
functions of the liver
1) it removes excess glucose(blood sugar) from the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen (a form of starch). when the blood sugar level is low it converts it back into glucose for release. 2) liver also destroys old erythrocytes, removes toxins from the blood stream, and manufactures some blood protein. 3) secretes bile which aids in the digestion of fats. it travels from the liver to the gallbladder where it is concentrated and stored.
bilirubin
the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, is released by the liver in bile.
Bile
a digestive juice produced by the liver that aids in the digestion of fats
biliary tree
provides the channels through which the bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
functions of the biliary tree
1) small ducts in the liver join together like branches to form the biliary tree. the trunk, which is just outside the liver is known as the common hepatic duct. 2) the bile travels from teh locer through the common hepatic duct to the gallbladder where it enters and exits through the narrow cyst duct. 3) the cyst duct leaving the gallbladder rejoins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. the common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct and together they enter the duodenum of the small intestine.
gallbladder
a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver. it stores and concentrates the bole for later use. when bile is needed the gallbladder contracts forcing the bile out through the biliary tree
cholecystic
means pertaining to the gallbladder. (cholecyst- gallbladder, -ic= pertaining to)
pancreas
a soft 6 inch long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach. the gland has important roles in the digestive and endocrine systems.
digestive functions of the pancreas
1) produces and secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion and contain sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize stomach acids and digestive enzymes. the pancreatic juices leave the pancreas through th pancreatic duct that joins the common bile duct jsut before the entrance into the duodenum
digestion
the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use.
digestive enzymes
responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients for use by the body.
nutrient
a substance (usu from food) that is necessary for normal functioning of the body. primary nutrients include: carbs, fats and proteins. essential nutrients includ: vitamins and minerals.
metabolism
includes all process involved in the body's use of nutrients. it consists of two parts: anabolism and catabolism. (metabol- change, -ism=condition)
anabolism
the building up of body cells and substance from nutrients
catabolism
the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide.
absorption
the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
villi
finger-like projections that covers the mucosa that lines the small intestines and contains blood vessels and lacteals. the blood vessels absorb nutrients directly from the digestive system into the bloodsream for delivery to the cells of the body.
lacteals
specialized structures of the lymphatic system that absorb fats and fat soluble vitamins (that can not be transported directly by the bloodstream) and transports them via the lymphatic system. as they are transported they are filtered by the lymph nodes in prep for their delivery to the bloodstream
mastication aka chewing
breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva and preps it to be swallowed.
bolus
a mass of food tht has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed. the term bolus is also used in relation to the admin of medication
swallowing
food travels from the mouth into the pharynx and on into the esophagus
peristalsis
a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction. in the esophagus, food moves downward through the action of gravity and peristalsis.
gastric juices
the stomach contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes to begin the digestive process. few nutrients enter the bloodstream through the walls of the stomach
chyme
a semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach through the pyloric sphincter and into the small intestine. (the churning action of the stomach works with teh gastric juices by converting the food into chyme)
role of the small intestine
the conversion of food into usable nutrients is completed as the chyme is moved through the small intestine by peristaltic action. in the duodenum, chyme is mixed with pancreatic juice and bile. the bile breaks apart large fat globules so enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest the fats. the jejunum secretes large amount of digestive enzymes and continues the process of digestion. the primary function of the ileum is the absorption of nutrients from the digested food.
emulsification
the breaking apart of large fat globules so enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest the fats. it must be completed before the nutrients can be absorbed onto the body.
role of the large intestine
to receive the waste products of digestion and store them until they are eliminated from the body. food waste enters the large intestine in liquid form. excess water is reabsorbed into the body through the walls of the lrg intest, helping to maintain the bodys fluid balance and remaining waste forms into feces.
feces aka stools
solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus
defecation aka bowel movement
the evacuation or emptying of the lrg intestine
borborygmus
the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine. this gas is produced by the millions of bacteria which help break down organic waste material in the large intestine
flatulence aka flatus
the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum
bariatrics
the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases.
dentist
holds a doctor of dental surgery (DDS) or doctor of medical dentistry (DMD) degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disease and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity
gastroenterologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines. (gastro- stomach, enter- small intestine, -ologist= specialist)
internist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems
orthodontist
a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusions of the teeth and related facial structures. (orth- straight or normal, odont- teeth, -ist= specialist)
periodontist
a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth. )peri- surrounding, odont- teeth, -ist= specialist)
proctologist
a physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum and anus. (proct- anus and rectum, -ologist= specialist)
aphthous ulcers aka canker sores or mouth ulcers
grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth. it is assoc with stress, certain foods or fever.
cheilosis aka cheilitis
a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth. (cheil-lips, -osis= abn condidition or disease)
herpes labialis aka cold sores or fever blisters
blister like sores on the lips and adjacent tissues that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) most adults have been infected by this extremely common virus, and in some, it becomse re-activated periodically causing cold sores.
oral thrush
develops when the fungus candida alicans grows out of control. the symptoms include creamy white lesions on the tongue or inner cheek, often occurs in infants and older adults with weakened immune systems or individuals who have been taking antbiotics
stomatomycosis
any disease of the mouth due to fungus. (stomat/o- mouth or oral cavity, myc-fungus, -osis= abn condition or disease)
stomatorrhagia
describes bleeding from any part of the mouth. (stomat/o- mouth or oral cavity, -rrhagia= bursting forth of blood)
trismus
describes any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer. causes difficulty in speaking and affects the patients nutrition due to impaired ability to chew and swallow.
xerostomia aka dry mouth
the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands. can be due to medication or radiations of the salivary glands and can cause discomfort, diff swallowing, changes teh taste of food, and dental decay. (xer/o- dry, stom-mouth, -ia= pertaining to.)
cleft lip aka hairlip
a birth defect in which tehre is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development.
cleft palate
the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus. it can involve the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate. can occur together or seperate of cleft lip.
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis aka trench mouth
caused by abn growth of bacteria in the mouth. as it progresses, the inflamm, bleeding, deep ulceration and the death of the gum tissue becomes more severe.
bruxism
the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usu occurs during sleep and is assoc with tension or stress. it wears away tooth structure, damages periodontal tissues and injures the temporomandibular joint.
dental calculus aka tartar
dental plaque that has calcified on the teeth. these deposits irritate the surrounding tissues and cause increasingly serious periodontal diseases.
dental caries aka tooth decay or a cavity
an infectious diseases caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth. the pulp can be exposed and become infected.
dental plaque
a major cause of dental caries and periodontal disease, forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between teeth. consists of bacteria and bacterial by products.
gingivitis
the earliest stage of periodontal disease and the inflamm affects only the gums. (gingiv- gums, -itis=inflamm)
halitosis aka bad breath
an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders. (halit-breath, -osis= abn condition disease)
periodontal disease aka periodontits
an inflamm of the tissues that surround and support the teeth. a progressive is classified according to the degree of tissue involvment. in severe cases the gums and bone surrounding the teeth are involved. (peri-surrounding, odont- teeth, -al= pertaining to.)
temporomandibular disorder
part of the group of complex symptoms that include pain, headache, or difficulty in chewing that are related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing. (dys- difficult, -phagia= swallowing)
gastroesophageal reflux disease aka GERD
the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus. when the stomach acid refluxes, the stomach acid irritates and damages the delicate lining of the esophagus. (gastr/o- stomach, esophag- esophagus, -eal= pertaining to)
pyrosis aka heartburn
the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus. (pyr- fever or fire, -osis= abn condition or disease.)
esophageal varices
enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
hiatal hernia
a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm. (hiat- opening, -al= pertaining to)
hernia
a protrusion of a part or structure through the tissues that normally contain it.
gastritis
a common inflamm of the stomach lining that is often caused by the bacterium helicobacter pylori. (gastr/o- stomach, itis= inflamm.)
gastroenteritis
an inflamm of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines (gastr/o- stomach, enter- small intestines, -itis= inflamm)
gastrorrhea
the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach. (gastr/o- stomach, -rrhea= flow or discharge)
peptic ulcers
are sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system. they are caused by the bacterium helicobacter pylori or by medications, such as asprins, that irritate the mucous membranes. (pept- digestion, -ic=pertaining to)
ulcer
an erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
gastric ulcers
peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach
duodenal ulcers
peptic ulcers that occur in the upper part of the small intestine
perforating ulcer
a complication of a peptic ulcer in which the ulcer erodes through the entire thickness of the organ wall.
anorexia
the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder charac by a false perception of body appearance. this leads to an intense fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a normal body weight. voluntary starvation and excessive exercising often cause the patient to become emaciated.
emaciated
abnormally thin
bulimia nervousa
an eating disorder charac by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or other medications.
bulimia
continuous excessive hunger
cachexia
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS. (these patients are unable to absorb the nutrients)
pica
an abn craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay that lasts for at least 1 month. pica is not the same as short-lasting abn food cravings that are sometimes assoc with pregnancy
dehydration
a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance.
malnutrition
a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb, and distribute these nutrients.
malabsorption
a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb the nutrients from food that passes through it
obesity
an excessive accumulation of fat in the body. obese usu refers to individuals who are more than 20-30% over the established weight standards for their height, age, and gender.
morbid obesity
the condition of weighing two or three times, or more, than the ideal weight or having a body mass index value greater than 39
body mass index (BMI)
a number that shows body weight adjusted for height. the results fall into one of these categories: underweight, normal, overweight, obese.
comorbidity
presence of more than one disease or health condition in an individual at a given time.
aerophagia
the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking and is a common cause of gas in the stomach. (aer/o- air, -phagia= swallowing)
dyspepsia aka indegestion
pain of discomfort in digestion. (dys- painful, -pepsia=digestion)
emesis aka vomiting
the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth.
eructation
the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.
hematemesis
the vomiting of blood. (hemat- blood, -emesis= vomiting)
hyperemesis
extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration. during pregnancy it is known as morning sickness. (hyper- excessive, emesis= vomiting)
nausea
the urge to vomit
regurgitation
the return of swallowed food into the mouth.
colorectal carcinoma aka colon cancer
often manifests itself first as polyps in the colon
diverticulosis
the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon
diverticulum
a small pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the colon
diverticulitis
inflamm of one or more diverticula in the colon. (diverticul- diverticulum, -itis= inflamm)
enteritis
an inflamm of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens. (enter- small intestines, -itis= inflamm.)
ileus
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine. it is caused by the cessation of intestinal peristalsis. symptoms can include: severe pain, cramping, abdominal distention, vomiting, and the failure to pass gas or stools.
postoperative ileus
a temp impairment of bowel motility that is considered to be a normal response to abdominal surgery--often for 24-72 hours.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) aka spastic colon
a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea. usu aggravated by stress, is not caused by pathogens or by structural changes
inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBD)
the general name for disease that cause inflamm in the intestines. the two most common inflamm bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
ulcerative colitis
a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflamm in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation. it starts in the rectum and works upward and affects the innermost lining of the colon.
Crohn's Disease
a chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon. usu penetrates every layer of tissue in the affected area--commonly resulting in scarring and thickening
regional ileitis
used to describe CD that affects the ileum. ileitis is an inflamm of the ileum.
crohns colitis
CD that affects the colon. colitis is an inflamm of the colon.
intestinal obstruction
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine caused by a physical obstruction. this blockage can result from many causes such as scar tissue or a tumor.
intestinal adhesions
they abnormally hold together parts of the intestine that normally should be separate. this condition, which is caused by inflamm or trauma, can lead to intestinal obstruction.
strangulating obstruction
the blood flow to a segment of the intestine is cut off.
gangrene
tissue death that is usu associated with a loss of circulation
perforation
a hole through the wall of a structure
volvulus
the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction--usu occurs in infancy
intussusception
the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. this is a rare condition sometimes found in infants and young children
inguinal hernia
the protrusion of small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin. it is caused by obesity, pregnancy, heavy lifting, or straining to pass stool.
strangulated hernia
occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off.
amebic dysentery aka amebiasis
transmitted by food or water that is contaminated due to poor sanitary condition. caused by one celled parasite entamoeba histolytica. mild form: loose stool, stomach pain, and stomach cramping. severe form: bloody stool and fever.
botulism aka food poisoning
rare and serious condition transmitted through contaminated food or an infected wound. caused by toxins produced by clostridium botulinum. symptoms include: paralysis and sometimes death
cholera
transmitted through contact with contaminated food or water. caused by: vibrio cholera. symptoms: starts with diarrhea and can progress to profuse diarrhea, vomiting, and rapid dehydration that can be fatal if not treated.
e. coli
transmitted through contaminated foods that have not been properly cooked. caused by: bacterium escherichia coli. symptoms: bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramping that cna be severe or fatal, in the very young and the elderly.
salmonellosis aka salmonella
transmitted by food that is contaminated by feces. caused by: bacterium salmonella. symptoms: severe diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and high fever.
typhoid fever aka enteric fever
caused by eating food that has been handled by a typhoid-carrier. a carrier is someone who is infected but is not sick. caused by: salmonella typhi. symptoms: headache, delirium, cough, watery diarrhea, rash and fever.
anal fissure
a small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that can cause severe pain during a bowel movement.
bowel incontinence
the inability to control the excretion of feces.
constipation
defined as having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week. stools are usually hard, dry, small in size and difficult to eliminate.
diarrhea
an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that an lead to dehydration. (dia- through, -rrhea= flow or discharge)
hemorrhoids aka piles
occurs when a cluster of veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening. the veins can become inflammed, resulting in pain, fecal leakage and bleeding.
melena
the passage of black, tarry, and foul smelling stools. the appearance of the stools is caused by the presence of digested blood and often indicates an injury or disorder in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. (melan- black, -a= noun ending).
bright red blood in stool
usually indicates that the blood is coming from the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract.
hepatitis
an inflammation of the liver. there are five viral types of hepatitis: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Hepatitis D Virus (HDV), Hepatitis E Virus (HEV).
Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
the most prevalent type of hepatitis. this condition is caused by the highly contagious HAV virus and is transmitted mainly through contaminated food and water.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
a bloodbourne disease that is transmitted through contact with blood and other body fluids that are contaminated with this virus. a vaccine is available to provide immunity against HBV.
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
a bloodbourne disease that is spread through contact with blood and other body fluids that are contaminated with this virus. HVC is described as a silent epidemic because it can be present in the body for years and destroys the liver, before any symptoms occur. no vaccine.
Hepatitis D Virus (HDV)
a bloodbourne disease that only occurs as a co-infection with B infection. although there is no specific vaccine for HDV, hepatitis B vaccine should be given to prevent a HBV/HDV co-infection.
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)
transmitted through contaminated food and water and is not present in the USA
hepatomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the liver.
jaundice
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and the eyes. caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
cirrhosis
a progressive degenerative disease of the liver that is often caused by excessive alcohol use or by viral hepatitis B or C. cirrhosis progress is marked by the formation of areas of scarred liver tissue that are filled with fat. (cirrh-yellow or orange, -osis= abn condition or disease)
ascities
an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
serous
substance having a watery consistency
caput medusae
describes the distended and engorged veins that are visible radiating from the umbilicus
hobnail liver
describes the lumpy appearance of the liver surface due to cirrhosis
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
describes a range of conditions charac by accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little to no alcohol. most commly affect middle aged who are obese , diabetes and elevated cholesterol.
steatosis
the mildest type of NAFLD and is charac by accumulations of fat within the liver that usu does not cause liver damage. (steat- fat, -osis= abn condition or disease)
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
is a more serious form of NAFLD an consists of fatty accumulations plus liver- damaging inflamm. in some cases, it will progress to cirrhosis, irreversible liver scarring or liver cancer. (steat/o- fat, hepat-liver, -itis= inflamm.)
cholangitis
an acute infection of the bile duct charac by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice. (choleang- bile duct, -itis= inflamm)
cholecystalgia
a pain in the gallbladder. cholecyst- gallbladder, -algia= pain)
cholecystitis
inflamm of the gallbladder usu associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile. (cholecyst- gallbladder, -itis= inflamm.)
gallstone aka biliary calculus or a cholelith
hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components.
cholelithiasis
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts. (chole- bile or gall, lithiasis= presence of stones.)
abdominal computed tomography (CT)
a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structures within the abdomen, showing, for example, the presence of a tumor or obstruction.
abdominal ultrasound
a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves.
anoscopy
the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum. (an/o- anus, -scopy= visual examination.)
anoscope
a short speculum used for anoscopy
speculum
an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any body cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior.
capsule endoscopy
a tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows. for approx. 8 hours it passes through the small intestine, this camera transmits images of the walls of the small intestine. they are detected by sensors on the patients abdomen and transmitted to a data recorder worn on the patients belt.
cholangiography
a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium,. used to identify obstructions in the liver or bile ducts that slow or block the flow of bile from the liver.
cholangiogram
the record resulting from a cholangiography
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
and endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach and upper duodenum. (esophag/o- esophagus, gastr/o- stomach, duoden/o- duodenum, -scopy= visual examination.)
upper GI series and lower GI series
radiographic studies to examine the digestive system using a contrast medium to make the structures visible.
barium swallow
used for the UPPER GI SERIES
barium enema
used for the LOWER GI SERIES
hemoccult test aka fecal occult blood test.
a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools. a test kit is used to obtain specimens at home and then are evaluated at the office. (hem- blood, -occult= hidden)
stool samples
specimens of feces that are examined for content and characs. can be checked for the presence of bacteria or O&P (ova-eggs) and (parasites)
endoscope
an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures. (endo- within, -scope= intrument for visual examination.)
polyps
mushroom like growths from the surface of mucous membranes
colonoscopy
the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum. (colon- colon, -scopy= visual examination.)
virtual colonoscopy
uses x-rays and computers to produce 2-D and 3-D images of the colon
sigmoidoscopy
is the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon. (sigmoid- sigmoid colon, -scopy= visual examination.)
enema
the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity. can be part of prep for endoscopic examination or to treat severe constipation.
antacids
neutralize the acids in the stomach, are taken to relieve the discomfort of condition such as pyrosis or to help peptic ulcers heal.
acid reducers
decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach, are used to treat the symptoms of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease.
antiemetic
a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting. (anti- against, emet= vomit, -ic= pertaining to)
laxatives
medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements.
bulk forming laxatives
such as bran, treat constipation by helping fecal matter retain water an remain soft as it moves through the intestine.
oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea, esp in young children.
dentalprophylaxsis
the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus.
gingivectomy
the surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue. (gingiv- gingival tissue, -ectomy= surgical removal.)
maxillofacial surgery
specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases and repair injuries
palatoplasty
surgical repair of a cleft palate and/or lip. (palat/o- palate, -plasty= surgical repair)
stomatoplasty
the surgical repair of the mouth. (stomat/o- mouth, -plasty= surgical repair)
gastrectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach. (gastr- stomach, -ectomy= surgical removal)
nasogastric intubation
the placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach. placed temporarily provides nutrition for patients who cannot take sufficient nutrients by mouth. (nas/o- nose, gastr- stomach, -ic= pertaining to)
gastrostomy tube
a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach. placed permanently, provides nutrients for patients who cannot swallow or take sufficient nutrients by mouth
total parenteral nutrition
is administered to patients who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition through eating. all of the patients nutritional requirements are met through a nutritional liquid that is administered intravenously for 10-12 hours for once a day or five times a week.
parenteral
not in or through the digestive system
bariatric surgery
performed to treat morbid obesity by restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested. they limit food intake and force dietarty changes that enable weight reduction
gastric bypass surgery
surgically makes the stomach smaller and causes food to bypass the first part of the small intestine. not reversible
gastric lap-band
procedure involves placing a band around the exterior of the stomach to restrict the amount of food that can enter the stomach. can be reversible.
colectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the colon. (col- colon, -ectomy= surgical removal)
diverticulectomy
the surgical removal of diverticulum. (diverticul- diverticulum, -ectomy= surgical removal )
gastroduodenostomy
the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and duodenum. performed to treat stomach cancer or to remove a malfunctioning pyloric valve. (gastr/o- stomach, duoden- small intestine, -ostomy= surgically creating an opening.)
anastomosis
an surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures.
ileectomy
the surgical removal of the ileum. (ile- ileum, -ectomy= surgical removal)
ostomy
a surgical procedure to create an artificial opening between an organ and the body surface.
stoma
the opening created during an ostomy
ileostomy
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall. (ile- small intestine, -ostomy= surgical creating an opening)
colostomy
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface. the segment of the intestine below the opening is usually removed, the fecal matter flows from the stoma to a disposable bag. can be temporary
hemorrhoidectomy
the surgical removal of hemorrhoids. (hemorrhoid- piles, -ectomy= surgical removal )
rubber band ligation
ofter used instead of surgery -- the rubberband cuts off the circulation at the base of the hemorrhoid causing it to fall off.
ligation
the tying off of blood vessels or ducts
proctectomy
the surgical removal of the rectum. (proct- rectum, -ectomy= surgical removal.)
proctopexy
the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ. (proct/o- rectum, -pexy= surgical fixation)
prolapse
falling down or dropping down of an internal organ or part.
laparoscope
specialized endoscope used for the examination and treatment of abdominal conditions.
proctoplasty
the surgical repair of the rectum. (proct/o- rectum, -plasty= surgical repair)
hepatectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the liver. (hepat- liver, -ectomy= surgical removal)
hepatorrhaphy
surgical suturing of the liver. (hepat/o- liver, -rrhaphy= surgical suturing.)
liver transplant
an option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer.
partial liver transplant
because the liver tissue regenerates only part of the organ is donated.
choledocholithotomy
an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones. (choledoch/o- common bile duct, lith- stone, -otomy= surgical incision)
cholecystectomy
the surgical removal of the gallbladder.
open cholecystectomy
performed through an incision in the right side of the upper abdomen
laparoscopic cholecystectomy aka lap choley
the surgical removal of the gallbladder using a laparoscope and other instruments inserted through three or four small incisions in the abdominal wall.
BILL, BIL, bili-, CCE, chole-, CIR, CIRR-, COL-
-bilirubin, -cholecystectomy, -cirrhosis, -colonoscopy
CRC-, EGD-, EV-, GE-
-colorectal carcinoma, -esophagogastroduodenoscopy, -esophageal varices, -gastroenteritis
ICS-, IH_, IO-
-ileocecal sphincter, -inguinal hernia, -intestinal obstruction
j,jaund-, MO-, PU-
-jaundice, -morbid obesity, -peptic ulcers
TMD-, TPN-, UC-
-temporomandibular disorders, -total parenteral nutrition, -ulcerative colitis