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Acute Respiratory Failure
Terms in this set (30)
when is acute respiratory failure diagnosed
when the pt is unable to maintain adequate blood gas values
what may result from inadequate ventilation (air movement in and out of lungs) or poor oxygenation (adequate ventilation but inability to get the oxygen into the blood and therefore the cells) or both.
hypoxemia (an inadequate level of oxygen in the blood)
what occurs when the diseased lungs are unable to effectively eliminate carbon dioxide due to respiratory failure
hypercapnia (too much carbon dioxide in the blood) and respiratory acidosis
what is often the precipitating factor in acute respiratory failure?
an acute respiratory infection in a pt with chronic airway obstruction
an acute respiratory infection in a pt with chronic airway obstruction is often the precipitating factor in acute respiratory failure. other causes can include what?
central nervous system disorders that affect the muscles of breathing, such as a stoke, spinal cord injury, or myasthenia gravis; inhalation of toxic substances; opioid overdose; and aspiration
whats important in pts with chronic respiratory diseases in prevention of acute respiratory failure?
avoidance of respiratory infections. instructed to tnotify physician ASAP if sputum becomes purulent
careful monitoring and early intervention are essential in pts at risk for respiratory failure. what should be carefully used or avoided in these pts
sedatives and narcotics because they are respiratory depressants and can precipitate failure
the pt getting ready to have respiratory failure may become what?
restless, confused, agitated, or sleepy. the pt is cyanotic and dyspenic, and respiratory rate becomes rapid and deep in an effort to blow off excess CO2
arterial blood gases show what with a pt getting ready to have acute respiratory failure?
decreasing PaO2 and pH and increasing PaCO2 which lead to respiratory acidosis
respiratory failure is diagnosed when?
PaO2 falls below 60mm Hg or PaCO2 is elevated above 50
Some pts with chronic respiratory disease have adapted to impaired gas exchange. in these pts what is considered acute failure?
a drop in PaO2 of 10 to 15 mm Hg
what may be used to identify underlying respiratory problems in a pt with acute respiratory failure?
sputum cultures or chest x ray examinations
what should be used continuously in a pt with acute respiratory failure
pulse oximetry to monitor oxygen saturation. pts cared for in icu may have additional monitorind, including capnogr
pt has symptoms of agitation or confusion what should you not do? what should you do?
treat the symptoms with sedatives, which will speed the onset of respiratory failure. you should carefully observe the pt and reprt significant finding to the physician immediatly
whats ordered for a pt with acute respiratory failure
antibiotics or other treatments to correct the underlying cause of the failure. bronchodilators
why are bronchodilators effective in the pt with acute respiratory failure
promote ventilation and secretion removal
if the pt with acute respiratory failure is unable to cough effectively what is indicated
what kind of findings will be in your assessment of a pt with acute respiratory failure?
hypoxia=restless, confused, agitated, sleepy. ABG decreased 02, increased CO2=cyanosis, dyspnea
whats your main problem with a pt with acute respiratory failure
impaired oxygenation and/or ventilation
whats the cause for impaired ventilation
abnormality of chest wall; diagphragm, medulla malfunction ( runs the bodys most basic but necessary functions )
whats the cause for impaired oxygenation
lack of perfusion to alveoli= PE, pulmonary edema, pneumonia
acute respiratory failure definition
inability to maintain adequate arterial blood gases
the ABGs indicate what
the inability to maintain adequate arterial blood gases
what does a persons ABG results look like with acute respiratory failure
PaO2 less than 60, SAO2 less than 90, PaCO2 greater than 50
whats the best nursing diagnosis for a pt with acute respiratory failure
impaired gas exchange r/t drug overdose AEB blood gas levels
what are your nursing interventions for a pt with acute respiratory failure
ICU- close monitoring, oxygen nasal cannula - ventilator, antibiotics, bronchodilators, suctioning, treat underlying cause, avoid sedatives
what are the causes of acute respiratory failure
acute respiratory infection, CNS, toxic inhalation, drug overdose, aspiration
what is PEEP?
positive end-expiratory pressure
why is PEEP useful for the ventilator pt?
helps keep airway open, pushes the oxygen into the lungs, helps get rid of CO2
if interventions have been effective in the pt with acute respiratory failure what will you see
pt will state dypnea is controlled. mental status will be normal for that pt. airways will be kept clear at all times, and the pts respiratory rate will be regular and within normal limits
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
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Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
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