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Pulmonary Physiology I
Terms in this set (43)
Inspiration is ______________.
Expiration is _______________ during rest.
What is the most important muscle of inspiration?
What supplies the diaphragm?
The phrenic nerves that originate high in the cervical region.
True or False: Intercostals, abdominal muscles, and accessory muscles are other respiratory muscles.
What is the main function of the respiratory system?
Gas exchange; To move O2 from outside air to the blood.
To remove CO2 from the blood to outside air.
True or False: Breathing is purely a passive action.
True; There are no muscles or structures to force air into and out of the lungs.
Air moves from regions of ________ pressure to regions of _________
What is Boyle's law?
States that the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship
True or False: Atmospheric pressure is constant and conventionally referred to as 0 cm H2O.
In order for the body to generate _________________, the chest wall must be intact and be able to expand.
Contraction of the external intercostals _____________ the volume of the chest cavity.
Contraction of the internal intercostals ______________ the volume of the chest more rapidly and to a greater degree than simply relaxing the external intercostals.
The muscles which do almost all the work involved in inspiration are the _____________ and the __________ ____________.
diaphragm; external intercostals
True or False: Barometric air pressure (PB) and alveolar pressure (Palv) are equal at the end of expiration and at the end of inspiration.
What does the graph depict? Provide required equations for terms.
The graph displays standard volumes and capacities.
TV= Tidal Volume (500 ml)
IRV-Inspiratory Reserve Volume
IC- Inspiratory capacity: inhaled air above tidal volume (TV + IRV= 3500 ml)
ERV- Expiratory Reserve Volume: exhaled air above tidal volume (1000 ml)
RV- Residual Volume: air left in the lungs following a maximal exhalation (1200 ml)
FRC- Functional Residual Capacity: (ERV + RV= 2200 ml)
VC- Vital Capacity: (IRV + TV + ERV= 4500 ml)
TLC- Total Lung Capacity: (RV + TV + IRV + ERV = 5700 ml)
True or False: Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the point where outer recoil and inner recoil are equal.
True; This occurs at the end of quiet breathing and means that the inward pull of the lung is balanced by the outward spring of the chest wall.
What is the pleura?
Are double layered serous membranes that surround each lung.
True or False: Without pleural fluid filling this space, the lung would decrease its volume because of the inward elastic recoil.
What is Fick's Law of Diffusion?
It's for gas transfer through tissue.
dV/dt = (A/T) x (D) x (P1-P2)
A= area T= thickness D= diffusion constant P=partial pressures of gases
True or False: The thickness of tissue separating air from blood is large.
False: The thickness is minimal to allow most of the gas exchange between the alveolar air and the pulmonary capillary blood.
_______________ provides enormous surface area for a limited volume.
True or False: Transmural pressure is the pressure difference between that in the alveoli and that on the outer surfaces of the lungs.
True: Transmural pressure = alveolar pressure - intrapleural pressure
It is the _______________ pressure that keeps the alveoli and small bronchioles open.
Alveoli are independent.
False; They are not independent. They are interdepenent and are similar to honeycombs.
True or False: No gas exchange occurs in the conducting zone.
True: It's considered dead space.
True or False: According to Poiseuille's law, factors that reduce the radius by small degrees lead to large changes in resistance.
True or False: The greatest resistance resides is the smallest airways during normal breathing.
False: The greatest resistance resides in the medium sized airways (bronchi).
Bronchial smooth muscle is controlled by the ____________ nervous system.
Autonomic; Stimulation of Beta-adrenergic receptors causes bronchodilation.
True or False: Compliance indicates the energy cost of breathing.
______________ compliance mean the lungs are more easily inflating with air (medically desirable).
The slope between 2 points on a pressure-volume curve is _____________.
compliance; Compliance is the slope change in V/P
True or False: Compliance is greatest at low volumes and reduced at high volumes.
What is surface tension?
the property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force due to its cohesive nature
How does surface tension affect alveoli function?
Smaller alveoli will tend to empty int larger ones, causing their collapse.
What does pulmonary surfactant do?
It decreases surface tension within alveoli so that less pressure is required to keep the lung inflated which helps stabilize the alveoli. It's produced by the type II alveolar epithelial cells.
What is acute respiratory distress syndrome?
What occurs during the absence of pulmonary surfactant?
Lung compliance is reduced, alveolar atelectasis, and tendency to pulmonary edema
True or False: Alveoli interdependence also prevents alveolar collapse.
Inhalation __________ resistance and exhalation ____________ resistance.
What is eupnea?
normal quiet breathing
True or False: Diseases that increase recoil or surface tension increases work of breathing.
True or False: Diseases that obstruct airways increase work of breathing.
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