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11 - The Middle Ages (Early and Late)
Terms in this set (42)
Period in European history between the end of the classical era (Greece and Rome) and the beginning of the modern era.
Ruler of the Franks who built churches, roads, and schools to unite Western Europe and become Holy Roman Emperor in 800 C.E.
Pope Leo III
Anointed Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in 800 C.E.
Religion that laid the foundation for early medieval society.
Angles and Saxons
Invaders from continental Europe who influenced England.
Nomadic group of invaders from central Asia that invaded central Europe.
Invaders from Scandinavia who raided Europe with "hit and run" tactics and eventually settled in Russia.
The political system of local government based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty and military service.
Self-sufficient manors provided the economic system that allowed feudalism to develop during the Middle Ages.
A grant of land
An individual who receives a grant of land in exchange for food, loyalty and military service.
A peasant bound to the land under feudal obligation.
William the Conqueror
Leader of the Norman conquest who united most of England.
King of England who developed common law and a trial by jury.
King of England who was forced to sign the Magna Carta, limiting the king's power.
Hundred Years' War
- Conflict between England and France
- France wins
- Helped to define England and France as
Joan of Arc
Peasant girl who helped unify France during the Hundred Years' War.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Unified most of Spain and led the inquisition to expel the Jews and Muslim Moors from Spain.
Expanded the Spanish Empire into the Western Hemisphere (the Americas).
Ivan the Great
Individual who threw off the rule of the Mongols, brought most of Russia under his rule and declared himself Tsar.
Eastern Orthodox Church
Division of Christianity that helped solidify Russia as a nation.
Gave the speech that launched the First Crusade.
Series of holy wars to gain control of the Holy Land.
Muslim military leader who gained control of the Jerusalem during the Crusades.
Effects of the Crusades
- Weakened the power of the pope and the church
- Weakened the Byzantine Empire
- Stimulated trade
- Left a legacy of bitterness among the Christians, Muslims, and Jews
Key Events of the Crusades
- Pope Urban's speech
- Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
- Formation of Four Crusader States
- Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin
- Sack of Constantinople by the western Crusaders
The Black Death
A plague that decimated much of the population of Asia and Europe.
Impacts of the Black Death (Bubonic Plague)
- Decline in population
- Scarcity of labor
- Loss of faith in the church
- Massacre of the Jewish population who was blamed for the plague
- Disruption of trade
Foundations of early medieval society
- Classical heritage of Rome
- Christian beliefs
- Customs of Germanic tribes
a focus on worldly matters, not religious beliefs
community where monks live
Person that spreads or promotes religious beliefs
Local leader of a Roman Catholic Church
Ability to meet one's needs without outside help
Germanic tribe able to unite most of western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire
A form of political organization often defined geographically by borders and home to a group of people with a common culture; a country
An English document that limited the power of the king and granted right and liberties to the people; ideas influenced the U.S. Constitution
Legislative body in England
French king that established the throne in Paris and expanded control over most of France
City that fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire
- Among the few people who could read and write
- Translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin
- Brought knowledge of philosophy, medicine, and science to Europe
- Foundation for the rise of universities
Invaded Russia, China, and the Muslim Empire in southwest Asia
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