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Historical Methods Selected Terms
Terms in this set (41)
The real or imagined capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices.
Something that is out if its own time; specifically, historians using ideas that are alien to the period under discussion.
Application of mathematical and statistical methods to historical data.
Of or concerned with phenomena, peoples or nations as they change through time.
Branch of philosophy concerned with theories of knowledge, that is, the nature and quality of knowledge and how we know what we know.
A doctrine which hold that there are necessary properties of things, that these are logically prior to the existence of the individuals may represent them, and that their identity depends upon their possession of specified characteristics.
Infatuation with, or admiration for what is exotic, foreign, unfamiliar
All embracing dominance, especially of a political and/or ideological kind, wielded by states, classes, or by extension, other groupings.
Marketing the past for leisure purposes; the development of forms of tourism that promote 'historic' places such as old towns, villages, museums, rural activities, and so on. Associated with the selling of objects. ex. museum shops, that evoke past times
A space that is outside of all other places even though it may be possible to indicate their position in reality. For Foucault, heterotopias constitute a discontinuous but socially defined spatiality. Examples: brothels, churches, hotel rooms, museums, libraries, prisons, asylums, Roman baths, the Scandinavian sauna, a ship at sea, a colony.
Historical thinking that places great importance on contextualized interpretation of information, and/or relativist, rejecting notions of universal, fundamental and immutable interpretations.
The writing of history, and the study of historical writings. More broadly, an awareness of different ways of doing history.
History from Below
History for, and about the majority of the population; the serious and committed study of non-elite groups, historical writing that is highly accessible and relevant to the people as a whole; a type of history that rejects elite perspectives.
Tendency or ability to perceive wholes, that is, to see how the parts of a historical situation are related to one another, and to embrace apparently disparate phenomena.
An untested proposition, used as a basis for argument and research, which will be (or ought to be) empirically tested.
A person's conception and expression of their individuality or group affiliations (ethnicity, nationality, religion, political faction, gender, etc.).
A set of ideas, held with deep commitment by individuals or groups, which shapes their view of the world, and which serves their material interests, if only indirectly.
The systematic study of the elements of language and the principles governing their organization; the science of language.
A unit of cultural transmission or a unit of imitation and replication
French term for which there is no precise English equivalent, but 'attitudes' and 'outlook' come very close. It us used of a kind of history that is concerned with people's mental lives and attitudes, and especially those aspects of them that remain tacit, but which nonetheless shape daily lives, child-rearing for ex.
Level of social analysis that is concerned with everyday life; historical research, often of a single community, on a small scale.
Western artistic movement usually associated with the late 19th century, and early 20th century with repudiation of settled, traditional approaches; especially evident in literature, music, architecture, and art. More broadly, the cult of what is modern, self-consciously innovative and dismissive of established ways.
Piece of writing, generally a book, on a specific historical phenomenon, person, place or event and the end result is specialized research.
Stories often involving supernatural or exceptional persons, actions, or events, that are endowed by a society with special significance, and that speak to its most cherished concerns, such as its origins; leadership or destiny; a fictional account; a view that is deeply imagined and resistant to contradictory evidence.
An account of narration of events, in the form of a story or tale, and often conforming to a recognizable figure, such as life history.
The cult of the orient; the development of an aesthetic based on (imagined) ideas of the east; the term now implies a criticism of such attitudes on the grounds that they distort and homogenize 'the east' inappropriately.
That which is not the self, and which possesses the quality of being different and sometimes alien; the tendency of dominant groups to see and exploit the differences they find between
themselves and distinct groups, who thereby become subordinate.
The study of documents, generally ancient, or old ones, with special attention to the hand writing and their authenticity, including accurate dating.
A model or pattern, sometimes a coherent world view or set of theories.
Set of influential cultural theories that departs from structuralism but that refuses the possibility of a scientific study of structures.
A reaction to modernism that is both dependent upon and highly critical of it; a skepticism of totalizing explanations, assumptions about progress and so-called grand narratives, and insistence on the impossibility of objective knowledge, and an acceptance of what is partial and fragmentary, both in human experience and in accounts of it; sometimes an amorphous term for recent cultural trends.
Evaluating past events and people by present-day values.
The view that there can be no objective standards, for ex, of historical truth, hence theories, values, and so on, must be understood as relative to the people and circumstances that produced them.
Field of study since classical times that systematically analyzes how language produces its effects; loosely, that art of using language effectively, for instance, to persuade or influence others. Sometimes used pejoratively to suggest merely superficial verbal effects without underlying substance.
Basic element of communication, not objects or referents themselves, but the device, whether verbal or non-verbal that refers to them.
Social Construction (ism)
Theories that emphasize the socially created nature of collective life; the idea that human existence is made up not of natural givens, but of social products, or constructs.
Approach in the social sciences that studies the structures that underline and generate observable phenomena; these structures are often thought to be rooted in the basic characteristics of the mind. Study of language is of fundamental importance.
Subordinate or inferior; in the phrase 'subaltern studies' it involves looking at colonial situations from the vantage point of the colonized.
Events or phenomena occurring or existing at the same time or having the same period or phase
Explanation in terms of goals or purchases; the assumption that ends or outcomes are present in and/or earlier stages of a process.
History that is written either from the point of view of the winners or from an unthinking commitment to progress. The term implies criticism to such an approach.
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