32 terms

Sociology CLEP

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What does sociology offer?
a perspective, a view of the world
Sociological perspective
stresses the social contexts in which people live
Society
a group of people who share a culture and a territory
Social location
the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society
What makes us do what we do?
Social location the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society The society in which we grow up and our particular location in that society lie at the center of what we do and what we think
Science
requires the development of theories that can be tested by systematic research
Measured by science, when did sociology appear on the human scene?
about the middle of the 1800s, when social observers began to use scientific methods to test their ideas
What resulted in the birth of sociology?
The scientific method was being tried out in chemistry and physics about the time that the Industrial Revolution ended. With tradition no longer providing the answers to questions about social life, the logical step was to apply the scientific method to these questions.
Positivism
the idea of applying the scientific method to the social world - first proposed by Auguste Comte
What is sociology defined as?
the study of society
Who is often credited with being the founder of sociology? Why?
Auguste Comte because he developed this idea and coined the term sociology (even though his conclusions have been abandoned)
Who is sometimes called the second founder of sociology?
Herbert Spencer
What phrase did Herbert Spencer coin?
the survival of the fittest (social Darwinism) - only the most capable and intelligent members of the society survive, while the less capable die out
What did Karl Marx propose?
Class Conflict - workers unite in revolution and throw off their chains of bondage resulting in a classless society - people will work according to their capabilities and receive according to their needs
What did Emile Durkheim identify?
Social integration, the degree to which people are tied to thier social group, as a key social factor in suicide - people who have weaker social ties are more likely to commit suicide
From Drukheim's study of suicide, we see what principle as being central in his research?
Human behavior cannot be understood simply in individualistic terms; we must always examine the social forces that affect people's lives
What idea of Max Weber's is still controversial today?
Religion was the key factor in the rise of capitalism
What are sociological theories?
Statements about how facts are related to one another
What are sociological theories based on?
are based on certain basic core assumptions, or basic metaphysical, epistemological and moral premises, about the nature of the social world.
What are some major sociological research methods used?
Surveys, observation, experiment, and analysis of existing data
Functionalist perspective
Society is made up of interdependent parts that perform functions for society as a whole
Under the functionalist perspective, it is believed that society is held together by social consensus. What is it?
The majority agree on what would be good for everybody
Conflict perspective
Portrays society as always changing and marked by conflict
Symbolic interactionist perspective
A micro view of society - people assign meanings to each other's words and actions - our response to a person's actions is determined by our subjective interpretation of that action
What is participant observation?
The researcher takes part in the group they are studying
What is detached observation?
The researcher observes as an uninvolved outsider, from a distance
W.E.B. Du Bois
the first African American to earn a doctrate at Harvard - for most of his career he taught sociology at Atlanta University - was concerned about social injustice, wrote about race relations, and was one of the founders of the National Assocation for the Advancement of Colored People
Jane Addams
founder of Hull House - a settlement house in the immigrant community of Chicago - in 1931, was a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize
Harriet Martineau
an Englishwoman who published Society in America decades before either Durkheim or Weber was born
Laud Humphreys
carried out doctoral research on homosexual activity - to obtain information, he misrepresented himself to his research subjects, when this became known he was questioned on his ethics
Herbert Spencer
believed that societies evolve from barbarian to civilized forms - first to use the expression "survival of the fittest"
Robert Merton
contributed the terms "manifest and latent functions" and "latent dysfunctions" to the functionalist perspective