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Research Methods, Tests of Means, and Chi Squares

Please feel free to fix typos, but don't change and answer unless you ask Pete or Nancy
STUDY
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An independent variable in which a characteristic or trait varies among individuals. a) dependent variable b) subject variable c) confidence interval
b) subject variable
What test would be used to see if the difference between children with a single parent or two parents on state-based assessments is statistically significant? A) Paired sample t-test B) One sample t-test C) Independent sample t-test
C) Independent sample t-test
What test t-test would you use to compare the average about of practice time for conservatory students versus non-conservatory students who also play an instrument?
Independent sample t-test
How would you test this question: Is the student body at Oberlin as racially diverse as the rest of the United States?
Goodness of Fit Test
Reasearchers want to look at how having a parent die or having parents divorce effects high school students grades. They compare the GPAs of students who's parents divored with those of students who lost a parent and those of students who did not lose a parent or experience a divorce. What test should they run to determine if the GPAs of the different groups are significantly different?
Between Subjects One Way ANOVA
"According to the answers from my three questions and the Anticipation Effect, a participant would be most likely to choose the answer [a, b, c] for this question."
a
"What problem arises when subjects are aware of the presence of an observer? a) The subject may get nervous and ask not to be part of the study any more. b) Subjects "react" to the observer's presence and change their behavior, so their behavior may not represent their normal behavior. c) There is no problem whether or not the subject is aware of the presence of an observer."
B) Subjects "react" to the observer's presence and change their behavior, so their behavior may not represent their normal behavior.
"How do narrative records differ from other forms of recording and measuring behavior?

1)The classification of behaviors is done after the observations are made.

2) The classification of behaviors is done before the observations are made.

3) Narrative records are more comprehensive than other forms of recording and measuring behavior.
1) The classification of behaviors is done after the observations are made.
"In a double blind study, which of the following are aware of group conditions? A) Observer B) Researcher C) Participant"
B) Researcher
What test would you use if you wanted to look at the relationship betwwen the amount of sleep you get on an average night and your grades in school?
Pearson Chi-square
What test would you use to compare the blood pressure of the elderly at Kendal to the mean blood pressure of elderly people in the United States?A) independent sample T test B) paired sample T-test c) one sample t-test
c) a one sample t-test
What is block randomization good for? a) assigning participants to conditions in random groups b) order conditions for each participant in a complete design c) both a and b
c) a and b
Which of the following is a type of unobtrusive measure? 1) structured observation 2) physical traces 3) participant obsrvation
2) physical traces
What test would you use to compare the number of ExCos that women take as compared to men? a) independent sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) one sample t-test
a) independent sample t-test
Researchers want to test a drug to see if it is effective. What would be a threat to the experiment's internal validity? a) The researchers use a double-blind procedure b) The researchers accidentally give a placebo pill to one of the subjects in the test group c) the researchers randomly assign subjects to their control and test groups
b) The researchers accidentally give a placebo pill to one of the subjects in the test group
Which of the following is a threat to internal validity? A) Mechanical subject loss B) Randomly assigning intact groups C) Manipulating the independent variable
B) randomly assigning intact groups
What test would you use to compare the average practice time of professional musicians versus conservatory student musicians? a) paired sample t-test b) independent sample t-test c) one sample t-test
b) independent sample t-test
"A group of researchers are looking to see if watching tv or being active on the computer screen before bed has an affect on how quickly you fall asleep. They assign 80 people to each group (watching tv, being active on the computer, and staring at a blank wall). Within each group, they have three different measures. The first is doing the activity for 10 minutes, the second is doing the activity for 20 minutes, and the third is doing the activity for 30 minutes. Which test would they use to see which activity keeps the participants up longer?"
Between subjects one-way ANOVA
Researchers would use a repeated measure design to achieve which of the following:

a) Conduct an experiment when a large number of participants are available

b) Decrease the sensitivity of the experiment

c) To account for the changes in participants' behavior over time

d) When each trial of the experiment requires an extended amount of time.
c) To account for the changes in participants' behavior over time
What test would you use to comparare the average GPA at Oberlin to all other private colleges in Ohio? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One sample t-test
C) One sample t-test
"Are college professors smarter than elementary school teachers? In order to test whether there is a difference in intelligence between educators at different levels of education, samples of 50 educators from 5 different levels of education (elementary school, middle school, high school, college, and graduate school) all took identical IQ tests. What test could be used to determine if there are statistically significant differences in intelligence between educators?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"Jelly Belly produces variety boxes of their jelly beans and claim that 50% are traditional flavors, 20% are sour flavors, and 30% are brand new flavors. Selecting a variety box at random from the candy store, you see that it contains 36 traditional flavors, 20 sour flavors, and 24 new flavors. What test would you use to determine whether Jelly Belly's claim is valid?"
Goodness of Fit
"The past 9 out of 17 winners on the TV show So You Think You Can Dance have been female, what test would you use to determine if female and male dancers differ in terms of the judge's scores? (A) Paired Sample t-test (B) One Sample t-test (C) Independent Sample t-test"
C) Independent Sample t-test
What is a major benefit of using event-based sampling in research? A) it allows you to record unpredictable phenomena B) it eliminates the problem of different times of day influencing your outcome C) it allows you to record events at convenient times
A) it allows you to record unpredictable phenomena
"Oberlin College Lanes wanted to see which lighting was most appropriate for students to bowl. The College Lanes claim that the current lighting, fluorescent lighting, is best suited and have advantage over other types of lighting available, including disco-ball lighting, spotlight lighting, and tungsten lighting. The researchers randomly assigned 48 students in Bowling I class into four groups. Each group bowled a game in four different lighting conditions. Group 1 bowled in a disco-ball lighting, group 2 bowled in a spotlight lighting, group 3 bowled in a fluorescent lighting, and group 4 bowled in tungsten lighting. Their performance was measured according to the number of pins they knocked down. What test should be run to test if their hypothesis is true?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
Ben and Jerry's wanted to determine if there was a relationship between preference of ice cream flavor and age group. Which test would they run to see if whether the participant was a child, a teenager, or an adult could predict which of the two ice cream flavors they preferred?
Pearson chi-square
Which of the following is not an advantage that researchers gain when they use a repeated measures design? a) the design is more sensitive b) the researchers want more practice effects c) they require fewer participants
b) the researchers want more practice effects
Which of the following is an example of structured observation? A) a researcher intervenes in order to exert some control over the events that are been observed B) a researcher observes high school students interactions with one another by sitting in classrooms C) a researcher analyzes the results of a survey about teenage drinking
A) a researcher intervenes in order to exert some control over the events that are been observed
"When intact groups formed prior to the start of the experiment are randomly assigned, the result is a) non-comparable groups b) block randomization c) internal validity"
a) non-comparable groups
Is the male:female ratio in Research Methods 1 similar to the Oberlin College male:female ratio?
Goodness of FIt
Researchers wanted to test the effectiveness of three different generic drugs on pain relief. They drew from a pool of patients who had just had their wisdom teeth removed and randomly assigned 25 participants to each drug and 25 participants to a placebo in the form of a sugar pill. Participants filled out a 20 question survey designed to create an overall score describing the amount of pain that they were feeling. What statistical test should they use to determine which of the three drugs provided the best results?
Between Subjects One-way ANOVA
"A sample of 28 people who read the New York Times daily were given a quiz on current events over the last 10 years and, on a scale of 1 to 10 scored an average of 8.0 with a standard deviation of 0.8. A different sample of 32 people who read the Washington Post daily were give the same test and score an average of 7.3 with a standard deviation of 1.1. What test should be used to analyze the data? A) paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test"
B) independent sample t-test
The essential difference between field experiments and other observational methods is: (A) Field experiments are a form of structured observation (B) Researchers exert more control in field experiments when they manipulate an independent variable (C) Field experiments can take place inside and/or outside a lab setting (D) Researchers do not have to be objective
B) Researchers exert more control in field experiments when they manipulate an independent variable.
"Studies have shown that talking on a phone while driving impairs driving performance. A national scale experiment has shown that on a scale from 1 to 10 (1 being the worst and 10 being the best), the mean driving performance while talking on a phone was 4.3 with a standard deviation of 1.5. This study was replicated in Oberlin by psychology department. 50 drivers were tested and the mean was 5.6 with a standard deviation of 2.0. If we were to test that Oberlin sample is representative of the US population, which test would we use? a)One sample t-test b) Paired sample t-test c) Independent sample t-test"
A) one sample t-test
"A person participating in a study is asked to type words on sitting at a computer in silence, then sitting while listening to music, then while standing, and finally standing while listening to music. The person is participating in a A) repeated measures design study B) practiced designed study C) known activity design study"
A) repeated measures design study
Oberlin wants to know whether the number of students that major in a language and study abroad is representative of the number of people in the entire student body who study abroad. What kind of test could the school use to analyze their data?
Goodness of fit test
The degree to which two independent observers agree is referred to as: a) interobserver reliability b) external validity c) cohesive opinion d) observational validity
a) interobserver reliability
Which method is NOT used to combat observer bias? A) By being aware of the outcomes for previous similar studies B) By recognizing observer bias may be present C) By keeping observers unaware of the hypothesized outcome
A) By being aware of the outcomes for previous similar studies
Oberlin college wants to compare the GPAs of students by department. What test should they use to compare the mean difference between the different majors?
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"What test would you use to compare how upset Village People fans and Parliament-Funkadelic fans are at Nicki Minaj on a 1-5 scale? a) a paired sample t-test, b) an independent sample t-test, c) a goodness of fit test, d) a pearson chi-square, e) None, no test can rate the anger I have towards Nicki Minaj"
B) an independent sample t-test
Which test would you use to compare the average birth weight of females as opposed to males?A) paired samples t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
B) independent sample t-test
Which of the following measurement scale involves ordering or ranking observations? (A) Nomial (B) Ordinal (C) Interval
B) Ordinal
"When does differential transfer occur? A) when the effects of one study effect another study B) when the effects of one condition influence the performance in subsequent conditions C) when one condition does not effect the other, they are independent of each other"
B) when the effects of one condition influence the performance in subsequent conditions
"A study is conducted to figure out when Oberlin Conservatory students give their most satisfying performance. However, if the researcher only visits the conservatory in the morning, what aspect of the data is being damaged? (A) External Validity, (B) Ecological Validity, (C) Content Validity"
A) External Validity
"A student has a history of lying. Which is an example of an occurence of statistical observer bias? a) In a survey of her class, a teacher assumes that this particular student has not honestly filled out the questionnaire and excludes it from her report to her principal. b) The teacher calls home to report to the parents, her suspicion of the student's dishonesty on an exam. c) The teacher gives a survey at the beginning of the semester and has no awareness of students previous behavior."
a) In a survey of her class, a teacher assumes that this particular student has not honestly filled out the questionnaire and excludes it from her report to her principal.
"Researchers are looking to analyze how different genres of music affect individual's heart rate. The three genres examined included country music, rap music, and classical music. Researchers randomly assigned 50 people to listen to a specific genre of music, either country, rap, or classical. After listening to music for five minutes, each individual's heart rate was taken. The groups of each genre are then compared. What test would you run to test your hypothesis?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
What is the best way to determine the reliability of an experiment: a) use a control group b) replicate the experiment c) use multiple observers d) a and b
b) replicate the experiment
"When a research subject knows what behavior to show in order to give the researcher good results, the subject is exhibiting A) demand characteristics B) expectancy effects C) selective deposit"
A) demand characteristics
Which of the following is not an example of observation with intervention? A) Naturalistic Observation; B) Field Experiment; C) Structured Observation.
A) Naturalistic Observation
What test would be used to answer the question: 5% of Lady Gaga fans faint when they see her at a live concert. How does this compare to the fans that have fainted at famous pop concerts throughout history?
Goodness of Fit
Which test would you use to compare the average weight of 50 year old females from California as opposed to the national average for 50 year old females? A) paired samples t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
C) one sample t-test
"Researchers wanted to find out whether taking notes on computer, as opposed to taking notes on paper or not taking notes but only listening, predicted better understanding of the material. The researchers randomly assigned 60 students into 3 groups. The first group watched a short clip of lecture while they took notes on computer. The second group did the same but took notes on paper. The third group just listened to the lecture. Ten minutes after the lecture, the students were given 10 multiple-choice questions to test their understanding of the material. What statistical test should they run to determine if their hypothesis is supported?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
Demand characteristics are a) cues that participants use to guess what is expected of them and that can guide participant's behavior. b) cues that researchers use to direct confederates c) social cues that people use to judge people's mood
a) cues that participant's use to guess what is expected of them and that can guide participants behavior.
What test would you use to compare the number of hours spent studying per week for law school students versus medical school students?
B) independent sample t-test
"""Orville Orangenbacher"" claims that 98% of his popcorn kernels pop. The national average according to FarmAgro Foods is 83% popped kernels. What test would you use to determine if Orangenbacher popcorn pops statistically better than average popcorn?"
Goodness of Fit Test
"Researchers want to test to see if a persons diet will affect their hair growth. Four groups of 40 randomly assigned participants are given four different types of diets for a month. Before they are put on these strict diets the researchers measure the persons natural diet and natural hair growth. The first group is put on a grain based diet. The second, on a protein based diet. The third, on a fruit based. The fourth, on a vegetable based diet. After a month the hair growth will be measured and compared between each of the four groups. What test should be ran?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Psychologists wanted to know if Oberlin students had higher or lower rates of depression than the general population of college age people. They created a scale to rank depression (1 being not depressed to 10 being very depressed). The mean for Oberlin students was 3.4 and the mean for the college age population was 4.2. The standard deviation of the Oberlin sample was 1.3 and they surveyed 124 students. What type of test would be used to see if Oberlin students are representative of the college aged population? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
C) One sample t-test
Researchers asked boys and girls whether they would prefer to read a mystery novel or a fantasy novel. They want to know whether has gender has an effect on the type of novel that is preferred. What test should they use to interpret the data?
Pearson Chi-square
Which of the following is an example of mechanical subject loss? A) an experimenter reads the wrong set of instructions. B) A participant forgets to come to the second portion of the study. C) A participant leaves during the middle of an experiment.
A) an experimenter reads the wrong set of instructions.
Forty high school students volunteered to be part of a study. They were randomly divided into two groups of 20. Half were placed in an Honors Biology course and the other group was placed in an AP Biology Course. At the end of the study both groups took the AP test to evaluate whether the AP Biology course helped prepare students for the test. By the time of the AP test 17 of the honors students and 11 of the AP students showed up to take the test. The AP students scored higher but the study was determined to be an inaccurate indicator of the amount the AP course prepared the students. What phenomenon caused this study to be invalid? A) selective subject loss B) mechanical subject loss C) unsuccessful partial replication
A) selective subject loss
"Do men and women differ in what size coffee they drink, small, medium, and large? How would you best analyze your data?"
Pearson Chi-Square
"Does Type of Food (1. a donut 2. a banana 3. chocolate bar) eaten before SAT test affect the performance score? Of a 450 students taking the SATs, 150 were given a donut, 150 were given a banana, and 150 were given a chocolate bar."
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
What test would you use to compare anxiety test scores of parents and their children? a) paired sample t-test b) independent sample t-test c) one sample t-test
a) paired sample t-test
"A group of researchers want to see whether the color of interior walls affects people's short-term memory ability. They randomy divide 120 participants into 3 groups. These groups are assigned to three conditions: memorize words in a red, a blue and a green room. In the end, researchers compare results from the groups. Which test would they use to test the effects of the colors?"
Between subjects one-way ANOVA
Researchers want to know if political party affiliation in the US varies by race. What kind of test should they conduct?
Chi-square
What test would be used to answer the question: is there any difference between how many male and female adolescents like the new Hannah Montana video game?
Pearson Chi-Square
You browse this week's board packet and notice a chart detailing all of OSCA's spending for this week. What test would you use to determine whether your Co-op's spending on non-food items is representative of all of OSCA's spending on non-food items?
Goodness of Fit Test
"An Oberlin professor taught 3 sections of introductory Spanish and noticed that student participation in each of the 3 sections seemed different. Students in the 9 am section seemed to pay attention less than students in the 4 pm section, who seemed to pay attention less than students in the 11 am section. The professor decided to test whether this perceived difference in participation presented itself in the students' midterm test scores, so she compared the average test grades for each of the three classes. She hypothesized that students in the 11 am section would do better on average than those in the 4 pm section, who would do better than those in the 9 am section. What type of test should she use to test her hypothesis?"
Between Subjects One-way ANOVA
Which of the following is not a method to control reactivity? (A) Disguised participant observation (B) Observation in a natural setting (C) Observation of physical traces.
C) Observation of physical traces.
"The Student Senate wishes to survey the Oberlin student population based on their transportation needs. During this research process, they wish to know how preferences for transportation to Cleveland differed between people requesting the service in the early morning (7-10), mid-morning/early afternoon (10-2), afternoon (2 - 5), evening (5-8), and late night (8-midnight). What statistical test would compare the central tendencies of each of these time slots on the matter of transportation to Cleveland?"
One Way ANOVA
Researches know the percent of people in New York City who use public transportation to get to work. How does this compare to the amount of public transportation used to get to work in other cities in the US?
Goodness of Fit
You want to compare how much TV an average 7 year old watches a day to how much an average 10 year old watches a day. What test would you use? A) Independent Sample t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
A) Independent sample t-test
When a subject fails to complete the experiment because of an equipment failure this is known as a) false data b) subject discard c) mechanical subject loss d) selective subject loss
c) mechanical subject loss
which test would you perform to compare the average calorie intake of college students to the U.S average person calorie intake per day a) paired sample t-test b)independent sample t-test c)one sample t-test
C) one Sample T-Test
"Give an example of a field expierement. A) The observer is the receptionist of a hotel. When the customer turns around the observer performs a switch with another person. Obeserving if the customer notices the switch. B) When there is a DV and IV where the observer does not have any control over the study. C) An observer records the behavior of elementary students in order to see if boys hit girls more, or if girls hit boys more."
A) The observer is the receptionist of a hotel. When the customer turns around the observer performs a switch with another person. Obeserving if the customer notices the switch.
Observation with intervention involves the following: (A) Participant Observation (B) Field Experiment (C) Indirect Obersvation (D) A & B
D) A & B
Which of the following is an effect under observer bias? A) field effects B) subject attribution C) expectancy effects
C) expectancy effects
"In a double blind procedure a) both the participant and observer are blind to what treatment is being administered b) no observation occurs in the procedure c) observations in the experiment is not recorded, only the final results are."
a) both the participant and observer are blind to what treatment is being administered
In which of these situations is random groups design employed? A) participants are asked to rate their self-esteem on a variable scale. B) participants in a drug trial study are randomly assigned programs of either the real drug or a placebo sugar tablet control. C) participants randomly select cards from a deck of 52 and place them into piles according to suit
B) participants in a drug trial study are randomly assigned programs of either the real drug or a placebo sugar tablet control.
Select the best answer: External Validity is the a) extent to which the results of a research study can be generalized to other settings b) extent to which the data is biased c) confirmation another experimenter gives your conclusion after retesting your experiment
a) extent to which the results of a research study can be generalized to other settings
Which of the following is a false description of situation sampling? a) It enhances external validity of findings b) It involves studying behavior under different circumstances c) It involves studying behavior in the same locations
c) It involves studying behavior in the same locations
How would you determine if on average the population in Texas has a higher rate of teen pregnancies thant the national average? (A) Paired Sample t-test (B) One Sample t-test (C) Independent Sample t-test
B) One Sample t-test
How many times is each participant given each treatment in the incomplete design? A) 0 times B) once C) twice
A) 0 times
"Oberlin Community Services on Food Distribution Day gave away 200 bags of onions, which test would you use to compare to the United State's Foodbank database on onion giveaways?"
Goodness of Fit
How would you answer this question? 35% of all beer consumed by US college students is Miller Lite. A recent survey showed that 42% of all beer consumed at Oberlin is Miller Lite. Is Oberlin typical of US colleges?
Goodness of Fit
Why are repeated measure designs good for conduction an experiment? a) they administer all conditions in the experiment to each participant b)they allow for certainty with repetition c) they give smaller standard deviations
a) they administer all conditions in the experiment to each participant
The most important facor in dealing with observer bias is: (a) limiting the information available to observers (b) awareness of its presence (c) using alternate methods of observation
(b) awareness of its presence
What does effect size measure? a) the effect of sample size b) strength of relationship between variables c) the number of effects an independent variable is perceived to have d) a and b
b) strength of relationship between variables
Which of the following is NOT a prerequisite to imply a causal inference? A) time-order relationship B) covariation C) random assignment
C) Random Assignment
Oberlin College student health wants to test whether the amount of students who smoke cigarettes is comparable with the national average. Which test would you use?
Goodness of Fit
"What test would you use to test whether, on average, children or their parents eat more vegetables? a) independent sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) one sample t-test"
b) paired sample t-test
"Researches want to determine if a vegan diet has an effect on blood pressure. Blood pressure is taken from 200 omnivores before their switch to veganism. After following a year long diet (no cheating allowed at penalty of death), blood pressure is taken again. What t-test would be used to determine if there was a mean change in bloodpressure after the diet?"
Paired sample t-test
Complete and incomplete repeated measures designs differ in the specific ways in which they control for a) error variation b) practice effects c) sensitivity
b) practice effects
Which of the following could be the underlying cause of a spirious relationship? A) an unidentified third variable B) analysis of inaccurate archival records C) both a and b are correct
A) an unidentified third variable
"observer bias happens when? A) when a researcher gives a uses naturalistic observation to observe behavior, B) uses structured observation and determines which behaviors they choos to observe, and when observers expectations about behavior lead to systematic errors in identifying and recording behavior, C) reserachers use running records(public adn private documents that are produced continuously"
b) uses structured observation and determines which behaviors they choos to observe, and when observers expectations about behavior lead to systematic errors in identifying and recording behavior
"After reading several similar studies that demonstrate significantly different effect sizes for the same dependent variable, a researcher decides to examine the entire existing body of research investigating that variable in order to draw a conclusion about the effect size. The technique the researcher will employ is called: A) null hypothesis significance test B) meta-analysis C) independent samples t-test"
B) meta-analysis
"Researchers want to test whether different kinds of noises in the sleeping environment affect stress level upon waking. They randomly assign 90 students into 3 groups of 30. All groups sleep for 8 hours in a controlled setting. Group 1 sleeps in silence (the control), group 2 sleeps with violent television programs on in the background, and group 3 sleeps with classical music playing in the background. Upon waking each subject is measured for the amount of stress hormones in their body. They are measured again later on in the day to see if their stress level has changed. What statistical test should the researchers run to tell whether different kinds of noises in the sleeping environment affect stress level upon waking?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"Researchers want to see if drinking different kinds of dairy products affects teenagers' growth. Four groups of 30 randomly assigned subjects are instructed to consume 16 oz per day of cow's milk, soy milk, almond milk, or no milk. Participants' height is measured before and after the one-year period. What test should the researchers run to determine if there is a difference in the growth between these groups?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
What test would you use to compare the average number of pounds of food thrown away by an Oberlin student to students at other American liberal arts schools? A) Paired t-test B) Independent Samples t-test C) One-Sample t-test
C) One Sample t-test
"An example of situation sampling is: a) Observations of pigeon feeding behavior are made every hour for 10 minutes. b) Observations of pigeon feeding are made when different types of bread (breadcrumbs, white, wheat, ) are strewn on the ground. c) Only white pigeons are observed."
b)Observations of pigeon feeding are made when different types of bread (breadcrumbs, white, wheat) are strewn on the ground
"If the two female student observers on the subway from Piliavin, Rodin, & Piliavin (1969) had had differing observations of the people on the subway, this would indicate they have: A) moderate relative frequency. B) low interobserver reliability. C) average correlative reactivity."
B) low interobserver reliability.
Which of the following is not an advantage of unobtrusive observation? a) It is nonreactive. b) It can confirm and/or support conclusions based on direct observation. c) It does not require researchers to conduct any preliminary set-up. d) It contributes to the importance of a multimethod approach.
c) It does not require researchers to conduct any preliminary set-up.
Which is a more serious problem for experimenters? A) mechanical subject loss B) selective subject loss C) they are equally serious
B selective subject loss
"What is an example of an experimenter effect? A) A participant drops out of an experiment because she does not enjoy the cold temperature she is being exposed to. B) The experimenter gives participants coffee as part of one condition, and they behave in accordance with their own expectations that the coffee will lift their mood. C) The experimenter treats one participant differently because the participant is wearing a t-shirt with a logo that the experimenter does not like."
C) The experimenter treats one participant differently because the participant is wearing a t-shirt with a logo that the experimenter does not like.
Which test would you use to compare the average amount of weight loss of mothers six months after pregnancy? A) paired samples t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
A) paired samples t-test
What test would you use if you wanted to compare the average number of hours of TV watched by parents to the aveage number of hours watched by their kids? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
B) paired sample t-test
"For a particular study, researchers host two similar outdoor gatherings, but with different music; they want to see if music genre influences event attendance. What kind of method are they using? A) participant observation B) field experiment C) structured observation"
C) structured observation
"What test would you do to compare the amount of wood an imaginary sample of woodchucks chuck, if woodchucks could chuck wood, to the amount of wood a sample of beavers chucks? a) independent samples t-test b) paired samples t- test c) one sample t- test d) there's no room for imagination in statistics"
A. (response to d = just multiply by i)
It has been reported that 75% of college students have a part time job. A recent survey showed that 85% of Oberlin students have a part-time job. Is Oberlin college typical of US college.
Goodness of Fit
What test would you use to compare the average IQ of college students in Maryland to the average IQ of college students in the US? a) one sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) independent sample t-test
a) one sample t-test
"Do men and women major in different areas? Area is defined as being in the arts and humanities, social sciences, or natural sciences. What test should you run to analyze your data?"
Pearson Chi-Square
"Time sampling is sometimes not an effective method for sampling behavior when the event of interest occurs infrequently. In this case, researchers use which type of sampling that enables them to record each event that meets a predetermined definition? A) situation sampling, B) subject sampling, C) event sampling"
C) event sampling
What test would you use to determine if people in their 30s who currently consistently run or consistently bike average more days of exercise per week? A) Paired t-test B) Independent Samples t-test C) One-Sample t-test
B) Independent Samples t-test
"Oberlin has a high percentage of students living on campus, about 90%. But a national survey shows that US colleges on average have 40% of students living on campus. Is Oberlin typical of US universities?"
Goodness-of-fit
"A researcher is interested in whether household size had an effect on the averaged score of a student taking the Georgia High School Graduation test. Every student taking the test that year was asked to self-report his or her family size. Students are divided into 4 groups: single parent/only child household, two-parent/only child household, single parent/multiple siblings, and two-parent/multiple siblings. What test should be used?"
One Way ANOVA
"Are boys at the age of 8 more likely to take part in rough and tumble play than girls at the age of 7? Whether they take part in such play is scaled as they often take part in rough and tumble play, they sometimes take part in it, or they never take part in it. What test would you use to analyze your data?"
Pearson Chi Square
What test would you use to compare the mean score of college students on a self esteem test to the mean scores of children and as a separate test to the mean score of adults? a) one sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) independent sample t-test
c) indepedent sample t-test
"Suppose two groups of people have been randomly selected to play Morton's List at a gaming convention. To make sure that no team has an advantage, the people running the game quickly gather data on everyone's height. How would you determine if the height data for the two groups had the same mean and standard deviation? a) independent sample t-test b) pearson chi-squared test c) paired sample t-test d) t-test from a sample with known mean"
a) independent Sample T-Test
What is the preferred way of balancing practice effects is: a) ABBA counterbalancing b) Matched group designs c) Using all possible orders
c) Using all possible orders
30% of entering freshmen in the USA are first-generation college students. Are Oberlin students typical? How would you answer this question?
Goodness of fit
Researchers can only draw a strong conclusion from their data by doing what in their experimental design? a) manipulating an independent variable b) eliminating other plausible explanations by holding relevant conditions constant c) balancing individual differences among the groups by random assignment to condition d) all of the above
d) all of the above
What test would you use to comparare the average high school GPA of a parent to their child? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One sample t-test
B) Paired samples t-test
Ben and Jerry's created two new flavors of ice cream and ran a study of 500 people in which each participant preformed a taste test and chose which flavor they liked more. Which test would they run to determine if there was a statistically significant overall preference of ice cream in their sample?
Goodness of Fit
"When observers intervenes in order to cause an event to occur, we called this procedure A) structured observation B) field experiment C) participant observation"
A) structured observation
"A professor in the Psychology Department at Oberlin decides to conduct an experiment to determine if being an international student has an effect on grades. Sorting through the Intro Psych class for that semester, they divide the students by their place of origin; Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, North America (not counting the US), and within the US. At the end of the semester, the student's final exams are used to gauge their learning of the subject. Which statistical test would the professor want to use to interpret these results?"
One Way ANOVA
What test would be used if we wanted to compare the time people of ages 13-19 and people of ages 40-49 spend on the computer?
pearson chi square
Participants in a study are asked to count and remember the size of 15 sets of black circles under two conditions. 1--The circles are on the ceiling while the participant is lying down. 2--The circles are on the wall in front of them while the participant is standing up. The circles sets are equidistant from the viewer. The order of performance of Condition 1 and Condition 2 is varied across subjects to control for practice effects. The study is created with A) Complete Design B) Incomplete design C) Block Randomization
B) Incomplete design
"Which of the following is NOT true about archival records? a) Archival records that are continuously kept and updated are called "progressing records" b) Potential problems include selective deposit, selective survival, and the possibility of spurious relationships. c) Researchers may examine archives to assess to effect of a natural treatment, a naturally occurring event that significantly impacts society or individuals."
A) Archival records that are continuously kept and updated are called "progressing records
One can control/reduce observer bias by a) keeping observers unaware of the goals and hypotheses of the study b) lying about the goals and hypotheses of the study c) explaining the concept of observer bias to the observers beforehand
a) keeping observers unaware of the goals and hypotheses of the study
Louisville Slugger made two new bats and ran a study asking 600 participants to decide which bat they preferred. Which test should be used to determine if there was a preference for one of the two bats?
goodness of fit
"A researcher at Oberlin College is interested in the courting practices of First-Year students. When he finishes collecting data on his subjects he finds that his results differ substantially from his friends observations. He only agreed with his partner on twenty of the fifty total observations. What might have caused the differences in results. a) They did not outline specifically what the event to be outlined would be. b) They were reliable observers but just did not make accurate observations. c) One of them might have written their narrative record of their observations after too much time had passed between the event and their recording of it. d) a, b, and c"
D) a, b, and c
"When would mechanical subject loss occur? a) the computer that is being used in the study crashes unexpectedly, b) a subject's car breaks down after the experiment, c) The experimenter's prosthetic leg falls off the morning before the experiment, d) A subject is lost at different points in the study due to a characteristic related to a dependent variable used in the study."
A) the computer that is being used in the study crashes unexpectedly
Are men who drink wine instead of beer less likely to get divorced?
Pearson chi-square
What test would you use to compare average food consumption between students in their first and second year of college. A) independent sample t-test B) paired sample t-test C) a goodness of fit test
B) paired sample t-test
Which types of experimental designs or tests best account for individual differences? a) repeated measures experiments b) paired sample t-tests c) one sample t-tests d) A and B e) A and C f) all of the above
d) A and B
"If researchers did a study on children's hand-eye coordination at the age of 10 and then compared scores to when they were 20, what t-test would you use? The researchers threw 30 baseball and counted the number of contacts the children had with a bat. A) Paired samples t-test B) One sample t-test C) Independent samples t-test"
A) Paired samples t-test
"Which one is NOT a level of measurement scale used to obtain quantitative measures of behavior?
A. Interval
B. Numerical
C. Ratio
B) Numerical
"The FDA wants to examine the health effects of consuming MSG in adults. The researchers conduct a survey that asks how many days per week an individual consumes products high in MSG (potato chips, soy sauce, ramen noodles). The researchers then record the BMI's of the individuals. What method should they use to determine if greater MSG consumption corresponds with an individual's BMI?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
What does correlation coefficient indicate? A) the direction of the correlation B) the strength of the correlation C) both
C) both
What test would be used to see if the percentage of Oberlin students who smoke is the same as all college students? A) Paired sample t-test B) One sample t-test C) Independent sample t-test
B) One sample t-test
Are high school students accepted into Oberlin representative of all high school students in the United States based upon SAT scores? What test should you run to analyze your data?
Goodness of Fit Test
What test would be used to compare the mean number of concussions sustained by the local high school football team to the national average of concussions sustained by high school football team? A) Independent Sample Test B) Paired Sample Test C) One Sample Test
C) One Sample Test
differential transfer.... a) arises when performance in one condition differs depending on the condition that precedes it b) can be identified by comparing the results for the same independent variable when tested in a repeated measure design and in a random groups design c) both a and b
c) both a and b
Which of the following is a type of observation with intervention? 1) naturalistic observation 2) field observation 3) nonreactive observation
2) field observation
Are women who has historically taken oral contraceptives likely to get ovarian cancer? The population is sampled from a group of women at high risk for ovarian cancer.
Pearson Chi Square
"Researchers want to see if mood affects how well one does on a test. They split participants into three groups. For the first group, they make the participants irritated by creating a hostile waiting environment (for example with lots of loud noise and a long wait). For the second group, they keep participants relatively neutral by having them show up and participate right away. For the third group, they put participants in a good mood by surprising them with nice things (such as food or small gifts). Then, the researchers have the participants take a 20 question quiz having to do with simple mathematics. What statistical test should the researchers use to determine if mood affects how well one does on a test?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"When researchers are interested in events that happen infrequently, what strategy do they rely on to sample behavior? A) systematic time-sampling B) random time-sampling C) event sampling"
C event sampling
"A musician wants to measure their ability to perform in the morning versus other times in the day. They decide to record themselves in the morning, then at varying hours of the day such that on day 1, they record one hour later. Day 2, two hours later. etc. This is an example of: A. External validity B. Unobtrusive measures C. Time Sampling"
C) time sampling
Pick the definition that best describes All Possible Orders (A) Each participant is randomly assigned to one of the orders (B) The number of required orders decreases with increasing numbers of conditions (C) The use of all possible orders is usually unlimited to experiments (D) The number of possible orders will always be equal to some multiple ofthe number of conditions in the experiment.
A) Each participant is randomly assigned to one of the orders
"Error variation is caused by
a) Variations in the procedure or individual differences in participants

b) Lack of internal validity

c) Whether there is an independent group design or a random one
a) Variations in the procedure or individual differences in participants
Differential transfer reduces A) external validity B) internal validity C) both
c) both
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using block randomization? A) it controls for time-related variables B) it decreases the amount of time spent in the experimental phase of the study C) it balances any characteristics of participants
B) it decreases the amount of time spent in the experimental phase of the study
Researchers want to know whether students at Oberlin High School read more than students at other high schools. What test should they run?
Goodness of Fit
What test would you use to compare the average college GPA of an individual to his/her same sex sibiling? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One sample t-test
B) Paired sample t-test
Is the ratio of students from east coast and west ratio in oberlin college similar to the ratio of students from east coast and west coast from Ohio Weslyan University
goodness to fit
When researchers stereotypes affect the behaviors they observe is an example of: a) expectancy effects b) observer bias c) reactivity
b) observer bias
Which of the following is not an advantage of block randomization? A) it ensures an equal number of subject in each condition B) it can increase internal validity by balancing the effect of potentially confounding variables C) it increases external validity by eliminating experimenter effects
C) it increases external validity by eliminating experimenter effects
"An agricultural company wants to test whether the average growth rate of a specific plant varies based on the type of fertilizer used. They create 5 crops of this plant, each with a different type of fertilizer, and keep all other treatment conditions constant between the crops. What test should they use to determine whether the growth rate is affected by the type of fertilizer used?"
Between subjects one-way ANOVA
Are Oberlin College students below the obesity line of the country?
Goodness of fit
A spurious relationship ___ A) exists when evidence falsely indicated that two or more variables are associated B) is often used to record nominal measurement scales C) are behaviors and events based on their subjective judgment about the degree or quantity of some trait or condition.
A) exists when evidence falsely indicated that two or more variables are associated
What test would you perform to compare a student's aveage stress levels before spring break and after spring break? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
B) Paired Sample T-Test
Which is a technique that can be used to diminish/control reactivity? A) Using a clipboard B) Standing close to and intently watching participants C) Disguised observation
C) Disguised observation
"Emily is an observer in an experiment testing the effects of different stress relief stratigies. She is instructed to administer a closed envelope to each participant containing specific directions on which strategy they should perform. She then leaves the room and comes back after the particant has had time to follow the directions. Then, without ever being informed of which activity they just performed, Emily conducts a post-stress test and records the results. What does the experimenter hope to diminish by setting up the study this way? A)double blindness B) experimenter effects C)Replication"
B) experimenter effects
The student union wants to know how the level of community involvement of students who work there compares to the overall level of student involvement at the college. Involvement is calculated as number of hours spent on extra-curricular activities. They know the mean number of hours students spend and they calculate the mean number of hours spent by students who work for the student union. What kind test would be used to compare these means?
One sample t-test
Which of the following is a drawback to a natural treatment study? A) Lacks real-life application B) Cost C) Lack of control
C) Lack of control
What would the following be an example of: you wanted to test whether a sample of psychology 100 students was typical of the Oberlin population in terms of average percentage attending college on a scholarship. a) paired-sample t-test; b) independent sample t-test; c) sample when mean is known.
c) sample when mean is known
"Question for Chap 6: The following measure is a physical-trace data? 1) to test community concern about crime: the number of dead-bolt locks on front door of houses 2) to investigate students' political groups: records of participation by students at local, state, and national conventions 3) to study fads in clothing: recent magazine, newspaper and television ads for clothing as an indicator of current fashion"
3) to study fads in clothing: recent magazine, newspaper and television ads for clothing as an indicator of current fashion
"In 1987, Orange juice company conducted a research and found out that the 75% of their annual sales are made by college students in US. In 2012, another survey showed that 85% of the products were purchased by OSU students. Are OSU students typical of US college students?"
goodness of fit
"What test would be used to compare the middle school grades of a Syrian school to all of the middle schools in Syria? a) a paired sample t-test, b) an independent sample t-test, c) a goodness of fit test, d) A one-sample t-test"
D) A one-sample t-test"
True of false: Mechanical subject loss can occur if a participant stops showing up.
FALSE
"What is a primary cause of ""error variation"" in research observations? A) Individual differences among the participants B) The use of repeated measure design in the study C) Decreased sensitivity in the experiment"
A) Individual differences among the participants
what statistical technique is used to summarize the effect sizes from several independent experiments investigaitn the same independent and dependent variables a)meta-analyisis b) replication c) double blind procedure
a) meta analyisis
"Researchers want to test a claim that relaxation and meditation before tests enhances students' memories. They divide sixty participants into three groups. All groups are required to memorize sequence of geometrical patterns for 20 minutes. Participants of group 1 is asked to relax and meditate for 20 minutes continuously before drawing the sequence of geometrical patterns. Members of group 2 is asked to read a poem by Walt Whitman for 20 minutes with 2 minute break before drawing the sequence of geometrical patterns. For Group 3, reseachers asked them not to meditate at all for 20 minutes and then to draw the sequence of geometrical patterns. The results are graded on a 30 point scale. What test should the researchers run to see if the claim has some significant, statistical validy?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
Oberlin College wanted to know if there was a gender difference in GPAs at Oberlin so it took the mean GPA of male identifying students and the mean GPA of female identifying students. What type of test should the college use to compare males and females?
Independent sample t-test
What does holding conditions constant allow researchers to do? A) create categorical variables B) avoid confounding variables C) randomly assign groups
B) avoid confounding variables
"Princeton Review's "SAT Ultimate Score Improvement" course claims that it will raise your score by 150 points. In order to verify Princeton Review's claim, what test would you use to compare the average SAT score of students before and after taking their course? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C) One sample t-test"
B) Paired samples t-test
What test would you perform to compare the suicide rate of Ohio to the national US rate? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
C) One Sample T-Test
What test would you use to compare the mean number of apples are on some apple trees in July versus those on the same set of trees in September? a) independent samples t-test b) paired samples t- test c) one sample t- test
B) paired samples t-test
What test would you use to comparare the average amount of study time for freshmen versus seniors? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One sample t-test
A) Independent samples t-test.
The sensitivity of an experimant refers to what? A) The ability to detect the effect of the independant variable even if the affect is a small one. B) When a subject fails to complete the experiment because of an equiptment failure. C) When performance in one condition differs depending on the condition that preccedes it.
A) The ability to detect the effect of the independant variable even if the affect is a small one.
What test should be used to investigate whether drivers between the ages of 16 and 20 are more likely to cause an accident than drivers age 65 and over?
Pearson Chi-Square
Which type of observation involves the observer as a passive recorder of information? a) field study b) naturalistic observation c) participant observation
b) naturalistic observation
What are two uses of block randomization? a) order conditions of each participant and assigning participants to a condition b) order conditions of each participant and counterbalancing c) assigning participants to a condition and to create interobserver reliability d) counterbalancing and to create interobserver reliability
a) order conditions of each participant and assigning participants to a condition
What test would you use to compare the average amount of sleep for college students versus high school students? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One-sample t-test
Independent samples t-test
What does observer bias lead to? A) Higher validity B) Systematic erroes in identifying and recording behavior C) A Larger sample size
B) Systematic erroes in identifying and recording behavior
________ occurs when the effects of one condition persist and influence performance in subsequent conditions. A) Differential Transfer B) Sensitivity C) Counterbalancing
A) Differential Transfer
What test would you use to compare the average level of energy consumption of one Oberlin College dorm to all dorms on campus? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One-sample t-test
One-sample t-test
"Do Oberlin Rugby players and Frisbee players differ in where they eat (that is, whether they eat in a vegan Co-op, a non-vegan Co-op, or CDS)? What test should you use to analyze your data?"
Pearson Chi-Square test
"Researchers at a sleep study center want to examine the effects of naps on physical endurance. They divide 33 subjects into three groups of 11. The first group is allowed a short nap for 10 minutes, the second medium for 30, and the third long for an hour. After being awoken, the subjects were asked to run on a treadmill for as long as they could. What test should they run to determine if nap duration has an effect on physical performance?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
"In Nigeria, there is a high level of hypertension amongst people age 50 and older. A new anti-hypertensive drug is being administered to patients and as a doctor you want to compare the before and after difference on blood pressure. Which test would you use? (A) Paired Sample t-test (B) Independent Sample t-test (C) One Sample t-test"
A) Paired Sample t-test
"A survey is conducted to figure out whether there is a gender difference in the consumption of orange juices, A and B. What test should be used?"
Pearson chi-squared
"You have test scores from two groups of children; one group of children in first grade, and their older siblings in third grade. You want to see if there is any correlation between older and younger siblings in terms of test scores. To do this, you would use: a) chi-squared testing b) paired sample t-test c) independent sample t-test d) z-test"
b) paired sample t-test
Do women and men differ in dog preferences (golden retriever vs. labrador) What test would be used to answer this question?
Pearson Chi-Square Test
Researchers want to know if Oberlin students' religious affiliation is similar to that of the United States' population as a whole. What kind of test will answer this question?
Goodness of Fit
"Researchers are interesting in knowing how people take other's actions personally. They decide to take children, young adults, middle aged, and elderly, and control for overly anxious or anti-social personalities. They put each of them into certain social situations where they may be able to interpret the research-actor as offensive. They categorize participants response with a evaluatiot survey after the situation. How would they determine whether different age groups respond differently to similar social situations?"
One Way ANOVA
"What is true about a repeated measures design? a) subjects serve as their own controls b) a separate group serves as a control for the group given the experimental treatment c) there is no control, but the experiment is repeated many times"
a) subjects serve as their own controls
What test would you use to compare the average amount of time spent browsing the web between cat owners and dog owners? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
A) Independent Sample T-Test
"Do males take more math courses than females at Oberlin College? What test would you use to compare the average number of math courses taken by males versus females? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C) One sample t-test"
A) Independent samples t-test.
A confidence interval is....A) associated with a probability that the interval contains the true population mean B) the estimate of where 95% of samples will fall around a population mean C) where 95% of the observations in a sample will fall
A) associated with a probability that the interval contains the true population mean
"OSWELL wants to determine what kinds of physical activities benefit students' stress and anxiety levels during Midterms best. They randomly assign 50 students into five groups of ten. All students participate in five different types of activity in an enclosed setting for one hour, three times a week, at a specified time. Group 1 participates in Contact Improv, Group 2 participates in a long treadmill jog, Group 3 participates in an aerobics class, Group 4 participates in yoga, and Group 5 participates in weight lifting. At the end of the week, all students fill out a survey on stress levels and overall energy and mood. What statistical test should they run to determine if any one activity is more beneficial for students?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"If you wanted to perform a study in which samples of Cat in the Cream concert goers were tested for average salivary activity 2 hours and 10 minutes before buying a Kat Kookie (see Cat in the Cream menu board for details), which test would you use? a) paired-sample t-test; b) independent sample t-test; c) sample when mean is known."
a) paired-sample t-test
"Svetlana is suspicious that her second toe is growing longer each year, and she worries that someday her wooden clogs won't fit anymore. To monitor her toe growth, Svetlana measures her toe biannually and records her observations. This is an example of: a) a running record b.) pedophilia c.) a narrative record d.) time sampling"
A) a running record
What test should be used to determine whether the percentage of drivers age 16 to 20 who cause accidents in Los Angeles is representative of the percentage of drivers age 16 to 20 who cause accidents in the US?
Goodness of Fit
"If in a study testing whether eating an apple with every meal increases weight loss, a third of the subjects drop out of the study because they are sick of eating apples, this would be an example of... a) selective subject loss b) a control group c) mechanical subject loss"
a) selective subject loss
What is a correlation coefficient? A) A quantitative index of the degree of this covariation. B) When observers disagree. C) An ethical issue
A) A quantitative index of the degree of this covariation.
"What test would be used to compare whether twins had a difference in the amount they liked different types of food? (On a 1-5 scale) a) paired sample t-test, b)independent sample t test, c) goodness of fit test, d) a pearson chi-square, e) test-osterone"
A) paired sample t-test, b)independent sample t test
"Researchers want to know whether there's gender difference in film preference. They collected data on how many males and females choose comedy, romance and action movie as their favoritate category. What test should they run?"
Pearson chi-square
"Take the above situation. Instead of one person analyzing the assignments, two people analyze each assignment, and then average the analysis (assume that the analysis yields a linear variable). This is an example of increasing A)interobserver reliability B) external validity C) observer bias"
A) interobserver reliability
"Researchers are interested in studying the most popular favorite colors among five-year-olds. It is important to insure that the reported favorite color is not just a temporary phase (i.e. little Jimmy only said he liked purple because he is jealous of little Bobby's new purple tricycle, which he will forget about tomorrow). So, researchers collected samples over several months from the children. This is an example of: a.) situational sampling b.) unethical research c.) time sampling"
C) time sampling
What test would you run to compare the average amount of food consumed for Oberlin students versus Bates students. A) independent sample t-test B) paired sample t-test C) a goodness of fit test.
A) independent sample t-test
Do students do better in school when they eat before class breakfast before class.
pearson chi-square
"A public advocacy group wants to see if the number of people who voted for school levies in Lorain county is representative of the state of Ohio as a whole, knowing the results of the elections. What test should they use?"
Goodness of Fit
What test would you run to answer this question? Are male and female students equally likely to double major?
Pearson Chi square
"Running Records are: a) Records about individuals or groups that are continually updated, b) A government-mandated program that makes the data from the first 13 years of an american citizen's life available to researchers, c) A drum and bass record label out of Connecticut, d) Records that describe specific events in a person's life"
"A: ""records that are continually updated"" is correct."
Which is not a problem associated with archival data? A) selective deposit B) they are subject to error C) inter-rater reliability D) spurious relationships
C) inter-rater reliability
What test should be used to compare the mean points scored per game of the Oberlin Men's basketball team and the mean points scored per game of the Oberlin Women's basketball team? A) One Sample Test B) Paired Sample Test C) Independent Sample Test
C) Independent Sample Test
"reactivity is
...
a. influence an observer has on the behavior under observation
...
b. inaccurate recorded data because the observer skewed the results as to fit their hypothesis
...
c. a recorded response of a participant in a study"
a
Differential Transfer is a potential problem in studies that measure: A)within-person data B)data from 2 seperate populations C)archival data
A)
What test would be used to determine whether an Oberlin student's college (or conservatory) major is independent of their ethnicity?
pearson chi-square
What test should be used to determine if alcoholism in a given sample is related to gender.
Pearson Chi-Square
"An study was done to observe celebrity influence on teen boys. One group of boys met a famous actor wearing a red hat. The second group of boys ran into another famous singer wearing a blue hat. The third group of boys did not meet anyone famous. One group at a time were shown into a store with identical red and blue hats. The results showed that the boys who met the famous actor wearing a red hat were more likely to buy the same red hat. The same occured for the group of boys meeting the singer wearing a blue hat. Lastly, the group of boys that did not meet any celebrity were even with blue and red hats. What is this study an example of? A) Manipulation of independent group design B) Block randomization C) Mechanical subject loss"
A)
What is the primary difference between direct and indirect observations?
Direct observations occur when the researcher direclty observes the behavior/action. Indirect observations occur when the researched examines past evidence of behavior/actions.
Which answer is not a subcategory of participant observation. A.undisguised B.disguised C.partially disguised
C.
"When an observer acts as a passive recorder towards the information they are seeing, they are using: a) naturalistic observation b) structured observation c) participant observation"
a) naturalistic observation
Is there a statistical difference for whether a students studying Spanish will pass or not pass the foreign langue course if the students has travelled to a foreign country? What test should you run to analyze your data?
Pearson Chi-Square
Which of the following is not an example of selective subject loss? a) when all of the subjects above 60 years old withdraw b) when all of the subjects within one variable group are lost c) when a computer crashes and a quarter of the subjects are lost
c)
True or false: the general procedures and logic for null hypothesis testing and for confidence intervals for repeated measures designs are similar to those used for random groups designs.
true
"Uncontrolled variables consider ""threats to internal validity"" because A) Differences in performance on a dependent variable can be attributed clearly and unambiguously to an effect of an independent variable B) They make a clear cause-and-effect inference about an independent variable C) They are potential alternative explanations for a study's ?ndings."
C)
What test would be used to deterime if Oberlin students have depression scores typical of 18-22 year olds nationwide?
1 sample t-test
What test should be used to compare how the number of athletes that smoke cigarettes compare to the entire student body? A) paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one-sample t-test
C) One sample t-test
Only members of Grould's gym with a BMI within healthy range were recorded in the satisfaction survey archives out of all surveys recorded in 2000-2005. What type of bias is shown? a) Weighted average b) Overselection c) Selective survival
c)
"Within repeated mesaures designs, the difference between a complete design and an incomplete design is that in a complete design, conditions are aministered to each particpant ____; and in an incomplete design, each condition is administered _______. A) only once; several times B)several times; only once C) only twice; at least three times"
B) several times; only once
What test would you use to compare the results of one persons 50 meter record and the record of their parents? a) independent t-test b) one sample t-test c) paired t-test.
c
"Researchers are testing to see whether Neuroticism score affects galivanic skin response while watching a stressful video. Participants are grouped into high and low Neuroticism categories, and their GSR is recorded after watching a video of a robbery. In order to determine if high/low Neuroticism score affects stress, which t-test should be run?"
Independent sample t-test
Select the best answer: Observer bias results from a. people getting weird results from the test b. the observer's expectations c. people not wanting to take the test
b
"Chapter 6:
...
It was said by Winston Churchill that "History is written by the
...
victors." What is the name of the problem that arises when records are
...
incomplete or missing? 1) selective deposit 2) selective survival 3)
...
content analysis "
2) selective survival
"A running club wanted to determine the best snack to have before a race - fruit, energy gel, or nothing. The runnning club randomly assignmed members into three groups which each ate a different snack before running a 5K race. Which statistical test should they use in order to determine which of the 3 provided the best results?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
How are the number of blocks in a block randomized schedule generally determined? A)number of conditions in the experiment B)number of times each condition is administered C) number of overall trials
B)number of times each condition is administered
What is an example of a demand characteristic? a) a study participant acting relaxed because they were given alcohol and think they should act as expected b) a research observer's bias affecting their scoring c) an experimental design which expects too much of its participants d) a researcher intervening in participant response
a)
Ten men and ten women each take a series of fifteen exams to determine their level of familiarity with the state of political affairs in different African states. The administrator of the test wants to know whether men or women tend to score higher on these tests. Which test is most useful?
Paired sample T-test
"Researchers wanted to see if the frequency a person eats a day has any effect on SAT test scores. Researchers randomly assigned 80 students into four groups. For a month one group ate one meal a day, one group ate two meals a day, one group ate three meals a day, and one group ate four meals a day. Subjects were allowed to eat as much food as they wanted at every meal but they always had to eat at least 350 calories per meal and could not snack. At the end of the month the subjects took the SAT test. Researchers hypothesized that eating more meals a day would result in higher scores. What test should be run to test this hypothesis using this data?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
Which of the following is NOT an example of indirect observational methods? A) Physical traces B) measurement scales C) Archival records
B
"If Oberlin students who eat in dining halls and co-ops are randomly assigned to participate in an experiment related to attitude towards local food, what might be the most likely problem that threats interval validity? 1) testing intact groups 2) balancing extraneous variables 3) subject loss"
1)
What is data reduction? a) eliminating outliers b) calculating relatedness between variables c) summarizing data from a study
c
"_____ is an effective method of sampling when the event of interest happens ______.
...
1) event sampling; infrequently. 2) time sampling; frequently. 3) time sampling; infrequently."
2) time sampling; frequently.
What test should be used to determine if Oberlin students more likely to be vegetarian than college students in general?
Goodness of Fit
"Researchers hypothesize that youth of different age groups have different texting habits. They survey high school students, college students, and young adults between college age and twenty-five. The survey includes information regarding number of people regularly texted, how often they text generally, at certain times of the day, and the subject matter of what they send (determined linearly by how 'personal' the text is). How would you compare the various parameters involved in texting habits?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
What is NOT an advantage to using repeated measures? A) Inter-person variability has no effect. B) They can be used with a small sample. C) They eliminate practice effects.
C)
"What is differential transfer? a) when the effects of a disability effect the subject's performance in all conditions, b) when the effects of one condition are immedietly forgotten in the next condition c) when the effects of one condition affect performance in the next conditions, d) a statistical function that takes the difference of two means and transfers them into a new data set"
C
"Selective survival is
...
a.bias that results from the way physical traces are laid down
...
b. bias that results from the way physical traces and archive survive over time
...
c. bias that results from the way archival sources are produced,edited, or altered as they are established"
b
Oberlin wanted to know if bringing dogs to campus during midterms and finals was helping students relieve stress. They measured stress hormones of students who showed up to play with the dogs both before playing with the dogs and after. What kind of t-test would be used to compare the means of students' stress levels before petting the dogs vs. after?
Paired sample t-test
"With the troubling increase in the instance of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), researchers are interested in determining whether children from low income communities in Atlanta, Georgia have a higher instance of ASD diagnosis than the country's averages. Which chi square test should they use?"
goodness of fit
Chapter 6: Researchers are interested in the varying pottery techniques used in southern America in the 14th century. What kind of trace would the pots be considered in the study? 1) use trace 2) product trace 3) material trace
2) product trace
When multiple methods obtain comparable answers to a research quesion we have A) external validity B) convergent validity C) internal validity
B) convergent validity
A baseball player plays half of his games in the night and half in the day. His night game batting average is .323 while his daytime game batting average is .289. What test would be used to analyze the data. A) One Sample Test B) Paired Sample Test C) Independent Sample Test
B) Paired Sample Test
"When participants and observers are both unaware of what condition they are assigned to in an experiment, this is known as: a) double-blind procedure b) internal validity c) palacebo control group"
a) double-blind procedure
"What test should be used to compare how adolescents felt about smoking before they saw an anti-smoking campaign, to after they saw an anti-smoking campaign? A) paired sample t-test B) Independent t-test and C) One sample t-test"
a)paired sample t-test
"Researchers want to examine how a healthy breakfast (a balanced nutritious meal) affects student's grades, in comparison to those who eat an unhealthy breakfast (PopTarts), or no breakfast. They randomly assign 30 students into three groups of ten. The study lasts for one module. Those in Group 1 eat a healthy breakfast everyday. Those in Group 2 eat an unhealthy breakfast everyday. Those in Group 3 eat no breakfast. Their grades for the module are then compared. What statistical test should they run to determine if their hypothesis is supported?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
"Researchers want to test to see if basketball players shoot better free throws with caffeine, sugar, or neither. They divide 60 basketball players into 3 groups of 20. One group is given a can of soda, another is given a bag of skittles, and the last group doesn't get anything. They each shoot 100 free throws and record the amount made. The totals from each group will be added up and compared to the other groups.What statistical test should be ran?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"Which is not a characteristic of observer bias? A) Reading previous writings/literature in order to form a hypothesis B) When observers' expectations about behaviors related to their studies lead to to systematic errors in identifying and recording behavior C) Using ""blind"" methods in order to set controls in the experiment"
C
Researchers took individual students and measured their confidence levels about midterms before and after drinking two cups of coffee. What test should they use to compare the two scores? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C) One Sample t-test
B) Paired Samples t-test
Reactivity is a) when obersvers play a role in the scene they are observing b) when observers lose their scientific objectivity c) when people change their behavior because they are being observed
c) when people change their behavior because they are being observed
What test would you use to compare the mean height of Oberlin College freshman and the mean height of Dartmouth College freshman? A) independent sample T test B) paired sample T-test c) one sample t-test
a) Independent sample t-test
Why would one measure the effect size of the independent variable on the dependent variable? A) to determine the confidence interval of the sample B) to control for outliers within a sample C) to compare samples that have different numbers of participants beyond the simple difference between the two conditions
C
What test would you use in order to compare Ohio college athlete's verticle jumps to college athletes from Michigan? A) One sample t-test B) Paired sample t-test C) Independent samples t-test
C)
"True of false: Does observing trash, beer cans, and food scraps in a parking lot close to a college football field result in natural use traces of non-reactive measures?"
true
"Are some dogs naturally more obedient than others? Researchers gathered samples of 20 one-year-old puppies from 4 different breeds (golden retrievers, pugs, greyhounds, and chihuahuas) and subjected them to an identical, one month obedience course. At the end, they were tested and their overall obedience was evaluated and scored based on their ability to perform learned commands. What test could be used to determine if there are statistically significant differences between breeds?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"The National Highway Traffic Saftey Administration is considering banning the wear of un-safe shoes while driving. Researchers want to study whether certain shoes affect an individual's ability to drive a car safely. They have three groups each wear a different kind of shoe (flip-flops, snow boots, heels, and sneakers) and then observe the time it takes them to move their foot from pushing the accelerator to fully compressing the brake. What test should the researchers run to determine if shoe type affects braking time in a car?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
"What is the ultimate goal of a scientist who is using observational methods?
...
A. To design their study in order to obtain the highest amount of external validity.
...
B. To gain sufficient evidence in order to prove their hypothesis.
...
C. To describe behavior as accurately as possible."
C
"Which of the following self-directed questions is likely in response to a demand characteristic? A) Should I do extra homework?; B) I haven't done my homework, but should I say that I have?; C) I haven't voted in the last election, so should I continue to tell everybody that?; D) I haven't received any works from Art Rental, but should I go get some?"
B
"A group of researchers want to know whether the change in people's levels of adrenal gland vary after watching a horror film, a comedy and an action film. They randomly assign 150 participants to these 3 conditions, and test participants levels of adrenal gland before and after wathcing the film. What test they would run to see whether there are significant differences in the change of people's levels of adrenal gland among these 3 conditions?"
between subjects one-way ANOVA
"Researchers are interested in the effects of different medications on dealing with pain symptoms. They are curious of the differinging effective rates of the brand name pain-killers Aleve, Tylenol, and Advil. Participants rate there pain on a scale of 1-10 before consuming the medicine and 1 hour afterwards. 100 participants were assigned to each group. What test should they run to determine if one of the medications is more effective at reducing pain?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
Expectancy effects are a) a type of oberserver bias b) a result of demand characteristics c) a resut of reactivity
a) a type of oberserver bias
"Reseachers want to know how long it takes for college students to get a silly haircut when they get to college. A sample of Oberlin College students with silly haircuts is categorized by whether they chose to go with Mohawk, spiked hair, half-head-shave look, oddly placed ponytail, or other. They are measured by how many months it took them to give up being serious about their hair."
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
Why must threats to internal validity be controlled? a) so a clear-cause effect inference can be made b) for the study to be valid c) for your null hypothesis to be rejected
a) a clear-cause effect inference can be made
What test should be used to compare the rates of smoking cigarettes between professors and students? A)paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
B) Independent t-test
"What is true of narrative records? a) they arise when records are missing or incomplete b) they occue when some information is selected to be deposited in archives, but some is not c) they are public and private documents describing the activities of individuals, groups, institutions, and governments d) they provide a more or less faithful reproduction of behavior as it originally occurred"
D
"Fill in the blank: In a double blind study both the (blank) and the (blank) are unaware of which treatment the groups are getting. A) Control Group, Experiemental Group B) Observer, Doctor C) Participant, Observer"
"C) Participant, Observer"
"Does it pay to pay for education? An evenly distributed sample of public high school graduates who did not attend college, private high school graduates who did not attend college, and private high school graduates who did attend college were asked how much money they make in a year."
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
Do Oberlin Varsity athletes get higher grades than the rest of Oberlin students?
Pearson Chi-Square
"Researchers predict that students will receive higher test scores the more hours they study. They divide students into groups that study for 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours, and 10 hours before a test. They are then given a multiple choice test on the material that they studied. Which test would be used to test whether the researchers' hypothesis is correct?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"Researchers want to see if various kinds of stimulants affect IQ scores. They randomly assign 60 participants (15 participants to each group) to four groups: Placebo, caffeine, nicotene, and theobromine. Each participant takes an IQ test after receiving a drug according to their condition. What test should they run to see if there is a difference in IQ scores between groups?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Which of the following research questions could be answered through Meta-Analysis? (A) How do we know the probability of the obtained outcome in an experiment? (B) How large an effect the independent variable had on the dependent variable (C) Whether the observed difference in the girls' body dissatisfaction was due to viewing the images of Barbie (D) What are the effects of class size on academic achievement?
D) What are the effects of class size on academic achievement?
What risk is taken when multiple experimenters' observations are used in a research? A) The levels of the intended independent variable would become confounded with the two experimenters B) The experimenters may combine their data into one set of observations C) Block randomization controls extraneous variables by balancing them across groups
A)
"Researchers want to conduct a study on if hospital patients rate their overall stay higher based on the frequency of visits by medical staff to check on the patient. Three groups are set up: one group where the patient is visited every 2 hours, one where they are visited every hour, and one where they are visited every 30 min. What stastistical test should be used to determine if the frequency of visits has an effect on the patient's rating of their stay at the hospital?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"Anticipation effect occurs when
...
a)
Participants anticipate the result of the experiment
b)
Participants anticipate towards the end of the experiment
c)
Participants experience practice effect and perform better
d)
Participants develops expectation about which condition is going to come up next in the sequence" D
What test would you use to compare the average number of children per household in the US to the average number of children per household worldwide? a) paired sample t-test b) independent sample t-test c) one sample t-test
c) one sample t-test
"Which of the following is an example of a ""product"" (a type of indirect measure)? A) A bumper sticker; B) A highlighted textbook; C) A college degree."
A
"Which of the following is the best example of effective independent groups design?
...
a)
Participants were put into groups by the order they showed up
b)
Participants were randomly assigned by the number generated by computer
c)
Participants were grouped based on their academic performance
d)
Experimenter used his or her authority and assigned participants by their own discretion" B
The overall effect of an independent variable in a complex design is called a) overall effect b) main effect c) complex effect
b) main effect
"Researchers predict that reading on a digital screen has negative effects on student's ability to read effectively, and that the negative affects multiply as the screen gets smaller. They randomly assign 40 students into four groups of 10. Each group reads a passage and then answers 15 multiple-choice questions on the passage. The first group reads the passage on paper. The second group reads the passage on a computer. The third group reads the passage on an ipad. And the fourth group reads the passage on an iphone. What statistical test should they run to determine if their hypothesis is supported?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
What kind of t-test should be run to determine whether the amount of coffee Oberlin students drink matches the amount of coffee Americans drink overall?
One-sample t-test
What test would you do to compare the divorce rate of Oberlin alumni to the divorce rate of the nation? a) independent samples t-test b) paired samples t- test c) one sample t- test d) things just got too serious to handle & you don't want to know
C! (or d)
Chapter 7: Researchers are excited about a new drug that has been cleared for human trial testing. Palimanary results show the placebo to have the same effect as the drug. What does this mean? 1) the drug and the placebo have the same effect and therefore the drug is useless 2) the drug works 3) the placebo must not work
1) the drug and the placebo have the same effect and therefore the drug is useless
Which of the following is an example of a threat to internal validity? a) random assignment b) extraneous variables c) placebo control group
b)
Goodness of Fit: Do the children I tutor perform better than the national average. Independent variable: various subjects. Dependent variable: my kids versus the national average.
...
Which of the following could be considered a 'natural treatment'? A) a stockmarket crash B) a divorce C) both a and b are correct
C) both a and b are correct
Which of the following is NOT a condition for a causal inference? A) variation B) time-order relationship C) elimination of plausible alternative causes
A) variation
"which test would you perform to compare the average calorie intake of dogs per day in the U.S and dogs from the U.K.a)paired sample t-test, b independent sample t-test, c one sample t-test"
b) independent sample t-test
The correlation coefficient indicates: a) the strength of the chi-square value b) the direction and strength of the variables' relationship c) the amount of causation from one variable to another
b) the direction and strength of the variables relationship
Is there a statistical difference between a student getting as all their class grades an A or higher or not based on extracurricular activities? What test should you run to analyze your data?
A Pearson Chi-Square
"Psychologists want to study the effects of coffee on test taking behaviors of high school students. They divide 60 students into three groups of 20. One group drinks no coffee before the test, the second drinks one, and the third drinks three. What test should they run to see if the differences in test scores are due to coffee intake?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
A study gathered data on two groups of students: those who played sports and thsoe who did not. The researchers collected data on the hours of sleep both groups of students got each night on average. The mean of the first group (sports) was 7.2 hours and the mean of the second group (no sports) was 7.8. The researchers got data from 26 students of each group. The standard error of the first group was .32 and .43 for the second group. What test would you use to determine if these two groups of students are drawn from the same population? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
A) Independent samples t-test.
"A group of researchers is tasked with providing a more effective ACT studying regime. They prepare four different study methods, each contained within their own instruction booklet. They then take a random sample of high-school students who have taken the ACT once, divide them in to four equal groups, and issue one kind of booklet to each group. After a few months, the groups take the ACT again, and the difference in the student's scores are measured. What statistical test would be most useful in determining which study method is the most effective?"
One Way ANOVA
When researchers intervene to exert control over the events they are observing it is called: a. structured observation b. participant observation c. naturalistic observation
a
Data has recently been gathered about living situations with regard to the type of pet owned. Are people who own cats or people who own dogs more likely to live alone? What type of test would help you analyze the data?
Pearson chi-square test
Which of the following are not ways of increasing external validity? a) field experiments; b) partial replication; c) holding conditions constant; d) conceptual replications
c) holding conditions constant
Data reduction is an important step in analyzing the content of what kind of record? A)Archival Records B)Narrative Records C) Electronic Recording of Tracking
B
What test would you use to compare whether the average weight of lions in a zoo matched the average weight of lions found in the wild? A) paired t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
B) Independent sample t-test:
What test would be used to determine whether distribution of college majors at Oberlin the same as the distribution of majors at other liberal arts colleges?
goodness of fit
"If a study takes place in a bus, store, home, and airport, what type of sampling is the observer performing? A) External Validity B) Time Sampling C) Situation Sampling"
C
What test would you use to compare the average SAT score of teenagers before and then after an intensive two-week meditation retreat?a) Independent samples t-test b) Paired samples t-test c) One sample t-test
b) Paired samples t-test
"Researchers want to measure whether type of bedding affects gerbils' reproduction. Three types of bedding are used: dried hay, newspaper, woodchips. Gerbils are allowed to reproduce. What test would they use to determine if type of bedding has an effect on the number of offspring of gerbils per reproduction event."
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"Researchers want to determine whether individual performance on a set of three tasks varies according to the order in which the tasks are performed. Each participant is asked to complete the set of tasks six times, but in a different order for each trial. The type of repeated measures design used in this study is: A) complete design B) interior design C) incomplete design"
A)
"A good example a Narrative Record is: a) A participant's account of a studied event, b) A video recording of a studied event, c) Records the researchers compiled from the stories of eyewitnesses, d) The written story of what happened in the time before and after a studied event"
"B: ""a video recording"" is correct."
"Researchers at a drug addiction rehab center want to determine if the age of a patient is related to the amount of time spent in the inpatient treatment program. Participants discharged within the last year are divided into 4 groups by age (15-26 yrs, 27-45 yrs, 45-60 yrs, 60-80 yrs), and inpatient time is observed. What test would be used to see if there are statistically significant differences in inpatient time between age groups?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
What test would you use to compare your High School's 50m record in track and the countries High School 50m record?a) independent t-test b) one sample t-test c) paired t-test.
b
What test would you use to compare the average income of people living in U.S. to people living in the U.K.? a) independent t-test b) one sample t-test c) paired t-test.
a
What does doing a blind study reduce? a) observer bias b) reactivity c) interobserver reliability conflicts
a
"Researchers want to test the patience of small children. One at a time, they place the children sitting at a table with a marshmallow in front of them. The researchers tell each child that they will be back soon, and that if the child is patient and does not eat the marshmallow now, he or she will get another marshmallow upon the return of the researchers. The researchers then leave and watch the child to see if he or she eats the marshmallow. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? a) the marshmallow b) the child c) how long the child can wait"
c)
"A group of researchers hypothesize that various caffeinated drinks affect attention in consumers in different ways. They randomly assign 90 participants into 3 groups of 30, and give each group a particular caffeinated beverage to consume before taking a simple memory test. All drinks are normalized to have the same caffeine content. The first group is given black coffee, the second group is given green tea, and the third group is given a carbonated energy drink. What statistical test should the group run to determine whether the results support the hypothesis?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Demand characteristics are a) cues that participants use to guess what is expected of them and that can guide participant's behavior. b) cues that researchers use to direct confederates c) social cues that people use to judge people's mood
B
What test would you use to compare a random sample of SAT scores from Oberlin College to one from all other private colleges in Ohio? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
C) One Sample t-test
Developmental psychologists want to determine the effects of 4 different teaching techniques on the speed of reading in first graders. 100 first graders are randomly assigned to 4 groups of 25. Each group is taught to read using a different teaching technique and at the end of the year they are tested to see how many words they can read in 3 minutes. What statistical test should they use in order to determine which teaching technique lead to the fastest reading?
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
Which of the following is a type of repeated measures design? a) complete design b) practice effect c) double-blind design d) block randomization
a
"Researchers want to see whether drinking different caffeinated drinks, with different levels of caffeine effects college students learning abilities. They predict that more caffeine leads to better learning (more correct multiple-choice). They randomly selected 40 students and split them into 4 groups of 10, had them all attend a lecture and then answer 15 multiple-choice questions on the lecture. The first group drank coffee (high caffeine), the second group drank tea (medium caffeine), the third drank soda (low caffeine), and the fourth drank water (no caffeine). What statistical test should they run to determine if their hypothesis is supported?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
"Practice effects are analagous to: a) a basketball player who finds that he practiced so hard the day before a game his aim is completely off, due to exhaustion. b) a musician who practices a piece until it sounds perfectly but gets stage fright and misses 20% of the notes in the song. c) when a new driver improves his driving abilities due to continued practice. d) When a man has to perform an impromptu brain surgery and finds that, despite having had no practice, he is a natural and has an intuitive understanding of the task at hand that leads him to perform better than almost anybody else."
C
What t-test would you use to compare the average BMI of people in Ohio with those in the United States?
One Sample T-test
"Which of the following is NOT true about bias in systematic observation methodology?
...
A.Observer bias is a systematic error in observation resulting from the observer's expectations.
...
B. Participant bias occurs when subjects change their behavior based on their own conceptions of the researcher's demand characteristics.
...
C. Simply being aware of observer bias can help to reduce its impact."
B
What is NOT a threat to internal validity? a) Randomly assigning intact groups b) selective subject loss c) block randomization.
c) block randomization.
What t-test test should be run to determine if there is a gender difference in the amount of cigarettes Oberlin students smoke?
Independent sample t-test
"In a classic study by Rosenhan (1973), participants were admitted to psychiatric hospitals and asked to observe and report the behaviors of hospital staffs. When Rosenhan later checked the staff reports, the staffs reported note taking as a symptom of participants' illness. Behaviors that otherwise might be considered normal were interpreted by the staff as evidence of the patients' illness. This study illustrates which of the following concepts: A) observer bias, B) Interobserver reliability, C) Habituation process"
A) observer bias
"Which of the following would best be described a habituation procedure? 1) Over time, a family on a reality television show gets used to the cameras and behaves normally. 2) A researcher counts empty liquor bottles in the trashcans of people living in a dry town. 3) A study tests how experienced drivers react to various distractions while driving."
1
What test would you use to compare a young Child's anxiety and depression score? A) independent sample T test B) paired sample T test C) one - sample T-test
b) Paired sample T-test
"Double-blind procedure occurs when: (A) One of the researchers are aware of whats needed to accomplish the procedure, and one researcher is unaware (B) Both the participant and the observer are blind to (unaware of) what treatment is being administered (C) Experiments involve placebo control groups (D) Both B & C"
D. B & C
Which of the following does not affect how reliable observational research is? a) data reduction b) reactivity c) demand characteristics d) observer bias
A
"For ages the human race has pondered which animal is truly man's best friend. Researchers invented the MBF scale, which measures the extent to which an animal is a friend to man. They randomly assigned samples of Dogs, Cats, Turtles, Dolphins, and Hippopotamuses and conducted lab tests on their relationship to humans. The results were then quantified via the MBF scale. The researchers hypothesized that turtles were in fact man's best friend, followed by dolphins, dogs, cats, and ending with the dreaded hippopoatmus. What test would they use to decide if their hypothesis was supported?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
What test would you use to determine whether individuals score better on tests after cramming the night before? a) independent samples t-test b) paired samples t- test c) one sample t- test
b) paired samples t-test
"which test would you perform to compare athletes the average calorie intake per day when they are in season and out of season?a paired sample t-test, b independent sample t-test, c one sample t-test"
a)paired sample t-test
Which of the following is the best way to observe the relationship between early childhood isolation and later emotional and psychological development?1) Naturalistic observation 2) Participant observation 3) Structured observation
1
What test would you use to compare the performance of individuals on a mood test on a day spent in the sun and on a day spent in the rain? a) one sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) independent sample t-test
b) paired sample t-test
"Researchers at Oberlin College want to test whether a students extracurricular activities in high school impact their GPA. The researchers test the mean GPAs of four groups with a total of 100 students surveyed: students who play varsity sports, students who are on the debate team, students on the chess team, and students who do not participate in any extracurricular activity."
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"The
...
Introduction to Psychology class in Fall Semester 2012 was the sample
...
for the student body of Oberlin College. The question was if ethnicity
...
(white, black, or hispanic) has an impact on the final grade(A, B,
...
C/D/F) for this class"
pearson chi-square
A national survey has found that 45% of undergraduate students study abroad sometime during their undergraduate career. Oberlin says that 56% of its students study aboard. Is Oberlin a typical undergraduate school? What test would you use to determine this?
Goodness of Fit
Are PSYC 100 students representative of Oberlin students in terms of playing a varsity sport? What test should you run to analyze your data?
A Goodness of Fit
"Which of the followings is not an example of a direct observation: A) naturalistic observation, B) physical traces, C) field experiment"
B) physical traces
"Which of the following is NOT true about practice effects:
...
A) Practice should be balanced across the conditions in repeated measure designs B) Block randomization or ABBA counterbalancing can be used C) ABBA counterbalancing is preferred over block randomization when practice effects are not liner"
C
"Which is the best example of ""selective deposit?"" a) a program of musicians from a piano competition b) a high school yearbook c) governmental records d) a safety deposit box"
b) a high school yearbook
"The Salvation Army and Volunteers of America are interested in whether their members' childhood religious affiliation (or non affiliation) has influenced their participation in volunteer activities. They survey seven groups: raised Christian (any denomination), Muslim, Jewish, multifaith household or non-specific God religion, atheist, agnostic, other. All participants take a survey measuring their current involvement in volunteer activities. What statistic test should be run to determine if specific religious upbringing affects volunteer activity?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Practice effects are balanced specifically in complete design by a) block randomization b) using all possible orders of the conditions c) using the Latin square
a)
What does it mean to have low interobserver reliability? A) There may be confusion over what is being measured; B) Few researchers (observers) have repeated the study; C) Researchers agree that the study was conducted poorly and is therefore reliable.
A
Researchers want to compare the yearly consumption of peanut butter and jelly sandwiches by children in Ohio to children in New Mexico. What test should they use? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C) One Sample t-test
A) independent sample t-test
"In ____________, all of the conditions of the experiment are randomly ordered each time they are presented, which balances the practice effects within complete designs. a) ABBA counterbalancing b) differential transference c) block randomization"
c) block randomization
Which of the following is an example of observer bias? a) a mother taking her child to the doctor because she is excessively worried about his health b) a mental hospital attendant not detecting sanity when the patient was categorized as schizophrenic c) a teacher giving a student extra help because of low test scores
B
"Michael is a part of a study in which his task is to press a button everytime he sees a flashing light. In the first two trials, he his very focused and does very well. But by the last trial, he has become tired and bored of the task and his score becomes worse than it had been before. This is an example of a: A) legth of time effect B) faulty study design C) practice effect"
C) Practice effect
What t-test would you use to compare math grades between siblings?
Paired sample t-test
If each condition of an experiment is administered to each participant only one this is call a) complete design b) incomplete design c) counterbalancing
a) complete design
"ESPN wants to conduct a study to see which of the major sports has the strongest players. They test strength by recording how much the players can bench press. The sports included in the study are baseball, football, basketball, and soccer. What statistical test should be used to determine which of the major sports has the strongest players on average?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Researchers want to compare the ratio of males to females at Oberlin against the US population ratio of males to females. What test should they run?
Goodness of Fit
"A Canadian cake bakery has decided to open a location in the US. But first, they want to see whether Canadian and US citizens have the same taste in frosting, be it buttercream or royal icing. They have a cake tasting of both icing types at a conference that has attendees from the US and Canada. What should they use to interpret their results?"
Pearson Chi-Square
"Researchers want to compare caffeine intake between the United States, China and Germany. What test should they use to compare the mean difference between the three countries?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Choose the best answer: Selective survival arises when 1) records are missing or incomplete 2) participants die during an experiment 3) data is removed from analysis by the experimenter.
Records are missing or incomplete
"You want to know the effect of computer game on body weight. You want to see whether playing 1-3 hours, 3-6 hours, 6-10 hours, or more than 10 hours of computer game results in different body weight. What test should you use?"
Pearson Chi-square
Why would researchers not choose a repeated measures design? a) when they want to conduct an experiment when few participants are available; b) when they want to conduct the experiment more efficiently; c) when they want to increase the sensitivity of the experiment; d) when they want to have subjects randomly assigned to separate conditions.
d) when they want to have subjects randomly assigned to separate conditions
"When the three conditions needed to make a causal inference-- covariation, time-order relationship and elimination of plausible alternative causes-- are met, the experiment is said to have: A)External validity B) internal validity C) random assignment"
B
What test would you use to determine if members of a pair of twins rank themselves as equally dependent? Group twins according to order of birth. A) Paired t-test B) Independent Samples t-test C) One-Sample t-test
A --Paired Samples
How would you answer this question: 95% of students at Oberlin College practice safe sex. A recent survey showed 82% of all college students in the US practice safe sex. Is Oberlin typical of US colleges?
Goodness of Fit Test
Psychologists studied the effect of different distracters while driving. Participant's driving performance was measured (from scale of 1 to 10) under two conditions: talking on a phone or not talking on a phone. Which test would you use to compare the average difference of driving performance in these two conditions? A) One sample t-test b) Paired sample t-test c) Independent sample t-test
b) paired sample t-test
A sample group of 54 people were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with their life though answering several questions. Their questions were scored on a 1 to 10 scale and the average score was 6.1 with a standard deviation of 0 .6. Then the sample group saw a movie about social injustice in the US and asked to evaluate their satisfaction with their life again. The average score was 7.0 with a 2.1 standard deviation. What test should be used to analyze the data? A) paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
A) paired sample t-test
What would you use to determine if the number of books owned by oberlin students was significantly different than national scores? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C) One Sample t-test
C) One sample t-test
What test would you use to compare the average household size of a family in the Unites States of America to the world average? A) paired t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
C) one sample t-test
Suzanne accidentally walks in on an experiment in session on the second floor of Severance and greatly disrupts a subject's concentration. This is an example of:a) selective subject loss b) a threat to internal validity c) mechanical subject loss
c) mechanical subject loss
"A group of student athletes believes that different sports require different athletic abilities, such as speed. They are curious about which of Oberlin's club sports has faster runners. Members of the Coed Soccer Team, the Men's and Women's Frisbee Teams (combined as a single experimental group), and both of the Rugby teams (combined) are randomly selected and asked to run a timed mile. What test should the students use to determine whether or not these sports teams are equally fast at running?"
Between Subjects One-way ANOVA
"The Republic of Korea Marine Corps wants to know whether marines with more muscle weight can complete 50 push ups in 15 minutes faster. 60 marines of equal muscle weight are divided into three groups. All three groups are fed certain amount of protein everyday for 3 weeks. Group 1 is fed with 30g of protein everyday for 3 weeks. Group 2 is fed with 20g of protein everyday for 3 weeks. Group 3 is not fed with protein at all for 3 weeks. After three weeks, the marines of these three groups have their push up record (in seconds) recorded. What test should the researchers run to see if the marines with more muscle weight does 60 push ups faster?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
"A group of researchers hypothesize that a certain drug exhibits a dose-dependent memory enhancing effect. They randomly assign 80 participants into 4 groups of 20, where one group receives a placebo and each of the other groups receives a low, moderate or high dosage of the drug (one condition for each group). After taking the drug (or placebo), participants complete a memorization task and are later asked to recall as much of the information as possible. What test should be run to determine whether the results support the hypothesis?"
Between subjects one-way ANOVA
Researchers want to test whether exposure to heavy metal music increases violent behaviors among adolescent boys. Participant boys were divided into two groups: a control group (no exposure to heavy metal) and effect group (exposure to heavy metal music). The intensity of violent behaviors were measured on a scale from 0 to 10. What test should the researchers use?
Paired sample t-test
ABBA counterbalancing... a) involves presenting the conditions in one sequence followed by another sequence b) is limited to experiments with only two conditions c) is appropriately used only when practice effects are linear
c)
Selective subject loss is more critical than mechanical subject loss for all of the following reasons except:a) Mechanical loss can be understood through a change of events and does not effect internal validity b) Selective subject loss involves equipment failure c) Selective subject loss destroys comparable groups
b) selective subject loss involves equipment failure
What test would you use to compare the average amount of studying of students at Oberlin College to the average amount of studying of students at other top liberal arts colleges?a) One sample t-test b) Paired sample t-test c) Independent samples t-test
a) One sample t-test
Differentil transfer happens when? A) When performance in one condition differs depending on the condition that preccedes it. B) The ability to detect the effect of the independant variable even if the affect is a small one. C) When a subject fails to complete the experiment because of an equiptment failure.
A
"what is a characteristic of a nominal measurement scale? A sort stimuli into discrete categories, B rank-order stimuli on a single dimension, C specify the distance between stimuli on a given dimension"
A
"Many people who have get a fever aproach how to deal with the fever in different ways. Some take medicine such as ibuprofen and advil, some avoid taking medicine and take the day off and sleep, others ignore it and go about their daily lives. Researcher interested in determining what is the best way to deal with a fever compared 3 groups, one group of people who took medicine, a second group who slept all day, and a third group who dealt with the fever and went about there day. The researchers then compared which group took less days to heal from their fevers. What test should the researcher run to see if there are significant differences in how long subjects got rid of there fever?"
Between Subjects One Way ANOVA
"Reasearchers want to know which college has the students who get the most sleep. They survey how many hours of sleep students get at three colleges, Oberlin, Carleton, and Pomona. What statistical test shoud they run?"
Between Subjects One Way ANOVA
"There are beliefs that students that dress well in a uniform that they test bettter than dressing in casual street clothes. To test these theories Researchers went to a private catholic school who had a strict dress code of a shirt and tie, and a public school where dress code was optional but appropriate. The researchers took 3 groups, two groups from the private catholic school where one group where students where never in violation of breaking the dress code, the other where students have violated the dress code more than 5 times. The researchers then took one group of students from the public school. The researchers then at the end of the year compared the GPAs of the groups of students. What test should the researcher run to see if there are significan differences in GPA according to how well the students dressed?"
between Subjects one-way ANOVA
What test would you use to compare the average amount of daily food intake between Varsity and non-Varsity college students? a) One sample t-test b) Paired samples t-test c) Independent samples t-test
c) Independent samples t-test
Question for Chap 6: Researchers used data about Olympic judges from the 2004 Olympic Games to confirm the finding of a research study: human judges are not immune to context effects when making judgments of others' performances. Which advantage of using archival data is related to this example? 1) as part of a multimenthod approach 2) to test external validity of laboratory finings 3) to assess effects of natural treatment
2)
Which of the following is an example of selective subject loss?: A)Some participants lose interest in the study and stop showing up B)A computer crash causes the loss of 25% of the data C)Only subjects with IQs of 125 and above are allowed in the study
A)
"Psychologists want to study what genre of music is the most ennervating for runners. Participants were divided into four groups, each of which listened to a different genre of music. They were then timed in a run, and those times were compared to times when participants were not listening to any music."
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"What is the most effective way to determine whether ""differential transfer"" will cause error in an experiment? A) Conduct a single experiment without a random groups design B) Conduct two experiments with one using a random groups design and the other using a repeated measures design C) Have multiple experimenters combine their data to develop conclusions from the experiment"
B)
The rule for balancing practice effects in the incomplete design is that each condition of the experiment must be presented in each ordinal position... a) an equal amount of times b) more than once c) in a randomized sequence
a) an equal amount of times
"In order for researchers to summarize their observational data easily by identifying units of specific behavior according to specific criteria, they use: (Choose the BEST answer) a) data reduction b) measurement scales c) coding"
C
Researchers gathered data on cognitive ability scores (which is on a scale from 0 to 10) of people who sleeps four hours a day and eight hours a day. Four hour group's mean score was 5.7 and eight hour group's mean score was 7.9. There were fifty five participants in each group. The standard deviation for four hour group was .34 and standard deviation for the eight hour group was .43. What test should the researchers use in order to determine whether participants in these two groups are from the same population?
Independent sample t-test
What test would be used to compare children's level of shyness before and after completing a friendship program? A) Paired sample t-test B) One sample t-test C) Independent sample t-test
A) Paired sample t-test
Which of the following is true about observer bias? (A) Observer bias occurs when researches often try to guess what behaviors are expected of the research participants (B) Observer bias is the degree to which two (or more) independent observers agree (C) Observer bias arises when records are missing or incomplete. (D) Observer bias may be reduced by keeping observers unaware ("blind") of the goals and hypotheses of the study
D
"Interobserver Reliablity refers to, a: The degree to which two observers are held accountable for the study, b: the degree to which two observers disagree, c: the degree to which an observer is reliable, as decided by the study coordinator, d: the degree to which two observers agree"
"D: ""the degree to which two observers agree"" is correct."
"Researchers want to test effects of different types of studying on memorization. They have three groups, each with 20 randomly assigned participants: one studying in a quiet environment, one in an environment with talking, and another with music. They split each group into two conditions: memorization based on seeing a list of words and having to memorize based on their meaning, or based on how many syllables each word has. Which test would they use to see which environment gives greater memorization?"
Between subjects one-way ANOVA
"As technology becomes more ingrained in society, a researcher is interested in its use for education in elementary classrooms. Using 150 randomly sampled rising 5th grade students, the researcher had Group 1 (50 students) watch an educational ten-minute clip on television, Group 2 (50 students) play an educational game on a computer for ten minutes, and Group 3 (50 students) listen to a certified teacher lecture on the material for ten minutes. After students were given a 20 question test on the material. What test should be used to determine in which condition studnets scored the highest?"
One Way ANOVA
"Researchers are interested in determining if there is an association between the number of children a family has (x<3, x>3) and the life expectancy of the fathers (y>50, y<50) in a small village in Indonesia. Which chi square test should they use?"
pearson chi sqaure
"The use of prescription drugs as "study drugs" has become more common amongst students. Researchers want to test the effects of different ADHD drugs on people who do not have ADHD to see its effects as a study drug. They use three groups of participants, one for Adderall, one for Ritalin, and one group who does not take any drugs. They are going to observe the behavior of the participants and give them material to study and then a test to take. What test should they run to see if there are significant differences between the three groups?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Which is an example of participant observation? a) a researcher asking questions to a group of high schoolers b) a researcher taking part in a discussion in a group of alcoholics c) a researcher conducting surveyes to various groups of people about eating habits
b
"Researchers are conducting a feild study to determine whether a young drunk bafoon is more or less likely to recieve bystander assistance than a senile (and verbally abrasive) old man. Wellington is to be an observer to the study and record the behavior of bystanders. Wellington predicts that the young drunk bafoon is more likely to recieve help because he himself is a young drunk bafoon on ocassion and claims to have much experience on this matter. So, Wellington projects his expectations into his observations. This is an example of: A.) Narrative Record B.)Stratified Random Sample C.) Observer Bias"
C
What t-test test should be run to determine if there is a difference in self-esteem scores between first-born children compared to their second-born sibling?
Paired sample t-test
Researchers are comparing Oberlin College incoming freshmen's average SAT scores to the national average SAT scores of incoming college freshmen (by collegeboard). What test should the researchers use if they want to test whether their Oberlin College incoming freshmen's average SAT scores are from the national average SAT scores of incoming college freshmen?
One sample t-test
"Consider a data set with 8 measurements, of which 1-3 are extreme values. What method might be best to compute a summary score?
...
A) Mean B) Median C) Mode"
B
A researcher is trying to study whether the attentiveness of ADD diagnosed children changes based upon their surroundings. Which sampling method should be used to have the best external validity? Time Sampling or Situation Sampling?
Situational Sampling
"In 1954, a study was conducted that measured the sexual satisfaction rates of individuals who had or had not taken sex ed classes. The same study was conducted in 2012. In order to determine whether the differences in the two sets of observed data were due to chance or to a change in the focus sex ed classes, which test would be run?"
Goodness of fit
"What 3 things are required for a study to have internal validity? a)time, money, and power b) chronology, elimination of negative causes, and variation, c) external validity, careful measurements, and a large number of subjects d) covariation, time-order relationship, and elimination of positive alternative causes"
D
"It has been shown that people heal faster when they are exposed to nature in some way. Researchers wanted to test to see if there are differences between different types of exposure to nature. They found a group of participants who all had second-degree burns. They split the participants up into four groups: one that had no exposure to nature, one that looked at nature on a computer daily, one that took a daily walk through the park, and one that took a daily walk by a lake. They monitored how quickly it took the burns to heal. What test should the researchers run to see if there are significant differences between the healing rates of the groups?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
___ arises when perfromance in one condition differs depending on the condition that precedes it? a)block randomization b) differential transfer c)counter balancing
b) differential transfer
"The Bonner Center predicts that students will learn most effectively in a quiet study environment, as opposed to an unpredictable sound environment or constant sound environment. They randomly assign twenty-four students into three groups of eight. All students study the same passage of text for 30 minutes. Those in group 1 study with background sound at a constant volume in the background. Those in group 2 study with noise that changes volume periodically. Those in group 3 study with no sound at all. After studying, all students take a 10 point multiple choice test over the material they studied. What statistical test should they run to determine if their hypothesis is supported?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Which test would you use to compare the prevalence of homophobia at Oberlin to that among college-aged people in the country? a) independent sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) one sample t-test
c) one sample t-test
"It is widely believed that individuals of lower socioeconomic status receive worse care in hospitals. What test would you use to compare the average percentage of individuals whose yearly income is below $11,490 who die hospitals per month versus the percentage of individuals of all socioeconomic status who die in hospitals per month? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C) One sample t-test"
C) One sample t-test
"For which of the following studies would the use of a repeated measures design be most appropriate? A) A study examining the effects of a drug on performance in a visuo-spatial task, with a sample size of 200 B) A study measuring performance on a single task under several different conditions, with a sample size of 25 C) A study on whether teenagers with depression are more likely to hold a negative body image, sample size of 80"
B)
"OSCA members are concerned that head cooks use more of their co-op's precious supply of vanilla extract than necessary when given a full bottle. They conducted an experiment using a group of 45 head cooks who always provide dessert with their meal (such as cookies or cake, which generally benefit from vanilla extract). They randomly assigned fifteen cooks to each of three groups. Group 1 was given a full bottle of vanilla extract during their meal, Group 2 was given an opened bottle that was slightly less than halfway filled, and Group 3 was given just enough vanilla extract to make their dessert flavorful should they decide to finish off the co-op's supply. The researchers recorded the amount of vanilla extract used for each meal minus the amount that the recipe(s) called for. What statistical test should be run to determine if the OSCA members' concerns are supported by the data?"
Between Subjects One-way ANOVA
What information from the last question needs to be included in the test table?
"observed data, expected data"
When is ABBA counterbalancing ineffective? a) when there are more than two conditions; b) when practice effects are not linear; c) when practice effects are linear; d) when the conditions are presented in one sequence followed by the opposite of that same sequence.
b) when practice effects are not linear
Many people believe that the sign of the zodiac that one is born under is related to behavior and personality. We have a chance to examine astrological influences with respect to a variety of behaviors surveyedin the 1991 General Social Survey (GSS) since one of the items on the survey (ZODIAC) asked for the respondents' astrological sign. The survey includes over 1200 respondents. What test would you run to see if claims made by astrologists were supported in this data set?
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
A teacher wants to try a new method on students. They measure its effectiveness by assigning a worksheet and then grading the assignments after they've been completed. The students do not know this is part of a study. This is an example of A) unobtrusive measures B) situation sampling C) Both
unobtrusive measures
"If, on the way to test the eager Cat in the Cream concertgoers for their bodily anticipation of a Kat Kookie (see previous question on the subject), the device you obtained to measure average salivary activity fell off the Peter's Observatory and broke, resulting in some of your subjects failing to complete your experiment, you have just suffered from what? a) selective subject loss; b) individual differences variable; c) mechanical subject loss; d) internal validity."
c) mechanical subject loss
What is an example of qualitative data analysis? A) Coding B) Relative frequency C) Standard deviation
A
Which of these is not an indirect or unobrusive observation? (a) structured observation (b) physical traces (c) archival records
(a) structured observation
The objective of an interval measurement scale is to: 1) rank stimuli on a single dimension 2) sort stimuli into discrete categories 3) specify the distance between stimuli within a dimension
3) specify the distance between stimuli within a dimension
"In Ayurvedic medicine, 3 doshas are used to used to decribe a person's mind and body type. It is believed that Kapha, Vata, and Pitta are present in all individuals, but in varying amounts. Typically, one of the three doshas predominates the others. 2,000 participants take the Chopra Center's questionaire to determine their predominate dosha. What test would be run in order to determine if there are statistically significant differences in blood-pressure amongt Kapha, Vata, and Pitta predominating people?"
Between Subjects one-way ANOVA
You have data on how much television a sample of 13 year olds watch. Is this sample representative of the general population? How would you figure that out?
Goodness of Fit
Select the best answer: The degree to which multiple observers agrees is called a. corroboration b. interobserver reliability c. observation convergence
b
What test should be used to determine if marital status has an effect on a goat farmer's favorite goat breed?
pearson chi-square
"Question for Chap 7: A study was supposed to test whether drinking 5-hour energy would increase the speed of solving puzzles. Participants were asked to do a puzzle before and after drinking 5-hour energy. Results showed that participants' speed of solving puzzle increased after drinking 5-hour energy. But because increase of speed may due to the practice and experience from the first condition of before drinking 5-hour energy, the results of this study might be challenged. What aspect about internal validity is problematic in this study? 1) covariation 2) time-order relationship 3) elimination of plausible alternative causes"
3)
"In Piliavin, Rodin, & Piliavin (1969), the female student researchers taking notes on the subway were taking part in: A) undisguised participant observation. B) reactivity habituation. C) disguised participant observation."
3) disguised participant observation.
"When using complete design, what is NOT a way to control for practice effects? A) Using a Latin Square B) Block Randomization C) ABBA Counterbalancing"
A)
Chapter 7: Researchers are concerned that other unaccountered factors may be influencing their results. They use _______________ to ensure the independent varible is the only factor that differs in their random sample. 1) holding conditions constant 2) testing the condtions 3) running the experiment a second time
1) holding conditions constant
Which way is NOT used to establish external validity? A) field experiments B) partial replication C) block randomization
C) block randomization
"Pick the definition that best describes Selected Orders (A) Using selected orders requires you to begin with a specified order of the conditions and to rotate the sequence randomly (B) The ?rst type of balancing using selected orders is called the Latin Square. In a Latin Square, the general rule for balancing practice effects is met. Each condition appears at each ordinal position once. (C) In a Latin Square each condition precedes and follows each other condition four times (D) If there is an even number of conditions, then two Latin Squares must be constructed."
"B) The ?rst type of balancing using selected orders is called the Latin Square. In a Latin Square, the general rule for balancing practice effects is met. Each condition appears at each ordinal position once."
Which measurement scale would be the best way to record gender of a given sample? A) Nominal B) Ordinal C) Interval D) Ratio
A
"Oberlin College wants to know if student GPAs vary by department as one measure in a study to determine if departments are equally rigorous. They study the 5 largest departments and compare the GPAs of majors for each department. They only use students who are in their junior and senior years, and thus have taken a larger number of classes in the department, and they look at the GPAs for the major (as opposed to the overall GPA) to eliminate the effects of other departments on the students' GPAs. What type of test would be used to determine if there were statistically significant differences in GPAs of majors in each of the 5 departments?"
Between Subjects One-way ANOVA
Does the type of vacation a married couple take (cruise to Caribbean versus Disneyland) depend on whether or not they have children? Which test would you use?
Pearson Chi-Square
An article has just come out saying that in the US 67% of people prefer big coffees. An Oberlin student has just run a study and found that in the town of Oberlin 78% of the residence would rather have big coffees. Is the town of Oberlin typical of the US?
Goodness of Fit
"What is a/are downside(s) to disguised participant observation? a) Because the researcher has embedded themselves into the community, their results are unimportant because any observation they make can not be taken reliability. b) Observers may lose their objectivity in making accurate observations if they began to identify with the subjects. c) The ethics of embedding a researcher can be negative since the researcher does not obtain informed consent. d) b and c"
D
Which of the following sample populations contribute the most to the external validity of a study on adult drinking habits? A) Anonymous survey drawn from PSYC 100 kids; B) Anonymous survey drawn from all Oberlin Psych majors; C) Survey drawn from Oberlin seniors frequenting the Feve happy hour; D) Survey drawn from all Oberlin College seniors.
D
A true experiment involves: a) Manipulation of one or more factors b) measurement of the effect of the manipulation c) both a and b
c) both a and b
"If a home teams statistics recorder only counts tackles for the away team using full tackles (1), but records the home teams tackles by halves (.5) (Indicating more than one player made the tackle), what is that an example of? A) Selective survival B) Selective deposit C) controlled-use traces"
B)
Researchers want to test if there's any association between cigarrette smoking on lower gpas (below 3.0) in high school. What test should they run?
Pearson chi-square
"A study wanted to see whether placing participants in a cold environment affected the ability to do simple math problems. A participant was first asked math problems at room temperature, then at -5 degrees C, then at -5 degrees C again, and finally again at room temperature. What repeated measure design is being used? A) ABBA Counterbalancing B) Block Randominzation C) Selected Orders"
A) ABBA Counterbalancing
What test would you use if you wanted to compare the average number of hours of TV watched by Oberlin students a day to the national average? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test
C) one sample t-test
"Researchers want to test to see if color affects people's perceptions of mood. They split participants into 7 groups and show each group a different color for 30 seconds: white, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple. Then, they ask the participants to rate pictures of people on a 5 point scale, where 1 is unhappy, and 5 is happy. The study contains over 200 participants. What statistical test should the researchers use to determine whether the results support the hypothesis that color affects mood?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
__________ refers to the ability of an experiment to detect even small effects of the independent variable A) sensitivity B) precision C) responsiveness
A) sensitivity
"Which of the following is an example of a spurious relationship? A) As ice cream sales increase, more old people die; B) As more Grapes are distributed, more people accept the strange humor of Oberlin students; C) As liberal politicians begin to feel that the term ""liberal"" has negative connotations, they stop referring to themselves as such; D) As Oberlin students do not talk to the older kids at the Boys and Girls Club, the kids begin to feel increasingly isolated from the college."
A
"when would you use structured observation? a) to cause an event to occur or to set up a situation so that events can be more easily recorded, b to observing people from a far and not influence the situation, C) interviewing someone"
a
A researcher wants to observe onlookers reactions to an epileptic siezure. What would be the best method of sampling? A) Random time sampling B) Event Sampling C) Situation Smapling
B
"Researchers want to test whether different kinds of meditation affect stress level in the same way. They randomly assign 90 students into 3 groups of 30. Groups 2 and 3 are each given instruction in how to do transcendental meditation (TM) and vipassana meditation (VP), respectively, and told to meditate for half an hour alone in an empty room. Group 1 is instructed to simply sit in an empty room for half an hour. After half an hour in the room, each subject is measured for the amount of stress hormones in their body. What statistical test should be run to tell whether different kinds of meditation affect stress level the same amount?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
Are children more likely to engage in bullying of other children if one of their parents has died?
Pearson Chi-Square
What test would you use to determine whether there is a difference between individuals involved in monogamous relationships between people under and over 25? a) independent samples t-test b) paired samples t-test c) one sample t-test
a) independent samples t-test
In a double-blind procedure: A) the participant is blind to the treatment B) the researcher is blind to the treatment C) one researcher is blind and one is not blind to the treatment D) A and B are both correct
D
"Psychologists wanted to study the effects of music on college students' ability to study. One hundred intro psychology students were randomly assigned into four groups of twenty five. All the students were given the same text to study for 25 minutes. The students in the first group studied with no music, the students in the second group studied with soft nonlyrical music, the third group studied while listening to music with lyrics, and the fourth group studied while listening to arbitrary noises. After studying they were then given a 20 point multiple choice test on the material. What test should you run to see if the soft nonlyrical music helped them study better?"
Between Subjects One-way ANOVA
Researchers want to test whether social behaviors are increased for children with Autism in the presence of festive music. What type of test should they use to evaluate their hypothesis? A) paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
A) paired sample t-test
You have data on video game usage of college freshmen and their grades. What test should you use to see if video game usage predicts grades?
Pearon Chi Square
What test should be used to compare the average income per household in Lorain County with the average income per household for the state of Ohio? A) paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
C) one sample t-test
"President Obama has recently turned his attention to pushing for universal enrollment of young children in preschool, saying that it prepares students to do better in school later in life. To find if an association exists between enrollment in pre-school and later achievement in a certain subject like geometry, what statistical test should you run?"
Pearson Chi-Square
What test would you use to compare the average weight of children before and after participating in a fitness program? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One-sample t-test
Paired samples t-test
"Dittmar's study on girls body dissatisfaction uses all of the following except:
...
a) Manipulation b) Holding conditions constant c) Double-blind procedure"
c) double blind procedure
Psychology students in Oberlin wishes to find out if there is difference in driving performance (measured on a scale of 1 to 10) between the athletes and psychology major students (those who fall into both categories are not considered) while talking on a phone. Which test would you use to compare the average performance for athletes and psychology majors? A) One sample t-test b) Paired sample t-test c) Independent sample t-test
c) independent sample t-test
Which of the following is NOT a key feature of Natural Group Design? A) subject variables are selcted and not manipulated B) this particular design is based on correlational research C) causal inferences can be made
C) causal inferences can be made
What is a double-blind procedure? A) When both the participant and the observer are blind to what treatment is being administered. B) When a subject fails to complete the experiment because of an equiptment failure. C) The ability to detect the effect of the independant variable even if the affect is a small one.
A
"For eons man has found itself in a quandry: are pretzels, chocolate, cheez-its, popcorn, or bannas more addictive? A ragtag team of disenfranchised researchers think that cheez-its are substantially more addictive than any of the other options. They run a laboratory test with 2000 students who came for free food, and give each of the students the 5 kinds of food in a randomized order. They then test the addictivity of the food through a number of measures, including a questionaire, a phisiological assessment of how much distress the students were under from not being able to eat more of the food, and a video camera monitoring the students' expressions. The researchers compile all the tests, and produce a single ""addictivity value"" towards each of the foods, on a 1-10 scale. What test would the researchers use to test their hypothesis?"
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
10% of all high school students own a North Face backpack. From a recent study you now know that 6% of students from your local high school own a North Face backpack. What test would you use to determine if this high school was normal?
Goodness of Fit
What test would you use to compare the average college GPA of one spouse to the other spouse? A) paired t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
A) paired sample t-test
What test would you use to compare the adrenaline level of people who listened to loud music in the treatment group to those who didn't in the control group? Nobody in the study was in both groups. A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One sample t-test
A) Independent sample t-test
"If you wanted to perform a study in which a sample of psychology majors was tested against a sample of neuroscience majors for frequency of Netflix watching (defined as high, medium, or low depending on the hours), which test would you use? a) paired-sample t-test; b) independent sample t-test; c) sample when mean is known."
b) independent sample t-test
When is time sampling ineffective?
When event of interest occurs infrequently
"A team of social scientists want to test if the mean number of people suffering from depression is impacted by the state people live in. The team survey 1000 people in 6 states (New York, Florida, Minnesota, Washington, Arizona, and Kentucky)."
Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA
"Does smoking vary by age? Consider three age categories-- 18-30, 31-43, 44 and above. Which test would you use?"
Pearson chi-squared
"The Psychology Department wishes to conduct a study on the reported restfulness of students who sleep with different amounts of audio and/or visual stimuli present in the room. They run a study in which students are divided into three groups, one with a television on (audiovisual), one with just music playing (audio), and one with no background sounds. Students in all three groups sleep between 7 and 9 hours that night and fill out a quick survey upon waking up. What statistical test would compare the central tendencies of these three stimulus groups on the matter of reported restful sleep?"
One Way ANOVA
A correlation coefficient indicates the __________ of the relationship between two measures. (a) strength and direction (b) priority (c) degree of covariation
(a) strength and dirrection
What test would you use to compare the number of college students who get an annual flu vaccine to the number of people nationally who get an annual flu vaccine? a) independent samples t-test b) paired samples t-test c) one sample t-test
c) one sample t-test
What is the observer bias? A)when records are missing or incomplete B) an objective coding technique C) the systematic errors in observation that result from an observer's expectations
C
"If a study is done comparing the Howell High School baseball team batting average to all Michigan high school team batting averages, what test would you use? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C) One sample t-test"
C)
What is interobserver reliability? A.Degree to which two or more independent observers agree. B. quantitative index of co-variation. C. cues in situational research.
A.
"Researchers want to see if the number of hours spent working out a week has any effect on a person's average bowling score. Three equal groups of people were selected for the study. One group regularly worked out for less that 30 minutes a week, the second group worked out for 30 minutes to 2 hours a week, and the third group worked out for over two hours a week. The subjects then bowled three games on three different days and the individuals' scores were averaged. Researchers believe that people who work out more will have higher bowling scores. What test should be run to test this hypothesis?"
Between Subject One-Way ANOVA
A sample of 1000 male students at Arizona State University between the ages of 18 and 23 own an average of 4.3 bro tanks with a standard deviation of 2.2. The national average for bro tanks owned by males between 18 and 23 is 1.4 with a standard deviation of 0.4. What test should be performed to see if this is a statistically signifigant tendency to own more bro tanks? A) paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test
C) one sample t-test
Which is not one of the steps of content analysis? A) Determining a variable B) Identifying a relevant source C) Coding units of analysis D) Sampling selections from the archival source
A) Determining a variable
What is mechanical subject loss? A) When a subject fails to complete the experimant because of an equiptment failure. B) A type of t-test. C) A measure of central tendency.
A
Using a pretest task to equate groups before an experiment is one aspect of the a) natural groups design b) repeated measures design c) matched groups design
c) matched groups design