CDL (Basic knowledge + air brakes)
Terms in this set (98)
What is the most important reason for doing vehicle inspection?
What thing should you check during a trip?
Tires, wheels, rims, brakes, lights, reflectors, broken electrical connections to trailer, trailer coupling devices, cargo securement devices
Name some key steering system parts
Steering shaft, tie rod, steering wheel, steering arm, power steering cylinder, spindle, steering knuckle, drag link, pitman arm, gearbox, hydraulic fluid reserve
Name some suspension system defects
Cracked or broken spring hangers, missing or broken leaves in any leaf spring, we can shock absorbency, torque rod or arm, you both, spring hangers, or other axle positioning parts that are cracked, damage, or missing, air suspension systems that are damaged and/or leaking, Air suspension systems that are damaged and/or leaking, any loose, cracked, broken, or missing frame members
What three kinds of emergency equipment must you have
Fire extinguishers, spare electrical fuses (unless equip did what circuit breaker's), warning devices for parked vehicles (example three reflective triangles)
What is the minimum tread depth for front tires? For other tires?
4/32 inch tread depth in every major groove on front tires 2/32 Inchon other tires
Name something you should check on the front of your vehicle during the walk around inspection
Condition of front axle, condition of steering system, condition of windshield, lights and reflectors
What should we owe bearing seals be checked for?
That they are not leaking
How many red reflective triangles should you carry?
How do you test hydraulic brakes for leaks?
Pump the brake pedal three times then apply firm pressure to the pedal and hold for five seconds. The pedal should not move
Why put the starter switch key in your pocket during the pre-trip inspection?
To prevent someone from moving the truck while you aren't in it and for safety
Why should you back toward the driver side?
So you can see better
If stopped on a hill, how can you start moving without rolling back?
Partly engage the clutch before you take your right foot off the break. Put on the parking break whenever necessary to keep from rolling back. Release the parking break only when you have a plied enough engine power to keep from rolling back
When backing why is it important to use a helper?
There are blind spots you cannot see
What is the most important hand signal that you and the help we should agree on?
What are two special conditions where you should downshift?
Before starting down a hill, before entering a curve
When should you downshift automatic transmissions?
When going down grades
Retarder's keep you from skating when the road is slippery, true or false?
Falls-retarder's helps lower vehicle reducing the need for using your brakes
What are the two ways to know when to shift?
Used engine speed (RPM) or use road speed (MPH)
How far ahead does the manual say you should look?
12 to 15 seconds ahead
What are the two main things to look for ahead?
Vehicles coming onto the highway and road conditions
What is your most important wait to see the sides and rear of your vehicle?
What does"communicating" mean in safe driving?
Letting other drivers know you are there to prevent accidents
Where should your reflectors be placed one stop on a divided highway?
10 feet, 100 feet, 200 feet toward the approaching traffic
What three things add up to the total stopping distance?
Perception distance + reaction distance + braking distance = total stopping distance
If you go twice as fast, will your stopping distance increased by two or four times?
Empty trucks have the best breaks. True or false?
What is hydroplaning?
When the tires lose their contact with the road
What is "black ice"?
Even layer of ice clear enough that you could see the road underneath it
How do you find out how many seconds of following distance space you have?
At least one second for each 10 feet of vehicle length at speeds below 40 mph
If you are driving a 30 foot vehicle at 55 mph how many seconds of following distance should you allow?
You should decrease your following distance of some body is following you too closely. True or false?
If you swing wide to the left before turning right, another driver may try to pass you on the right. True or false?
What is a hazard?
Any road condition or other road users that is a possible danger
Why make emergency plans when you see a hazard?
To be prepared, improve your own safety as well as the safety of all road users
What are some tips to follow so you won't become a distracted driver?
-Review and be totally familiar with all safety and usage features on any in vehicle electronics, including your wireless or cell phone, before you drive
-pre-program radio stations
-preload CDs or cassette tape's
-clear vehicle of any unnecessary objects
-review maps and plan your route before you begin driving
-it just all mirrors for best all around visibility before you start your trip
-don't attempt to read or write while you drive
-avoid smoking, eating, and drinking while you are driving
-don't engage in complex or emotionally intense conversations with other occupants
How do you use in vehicle communications equipment cautiously?
-One possible pull off the road in a safe and legal place when making or receiving a call on communication equipment
-if possible turn the cell phone off until your destination is reached
-pre-program the cell phones with commonly called numbers
-if you have to place a call, find a safe place to pull off the road. Do not place a call while driving
-NYS vehicle and traffic Law requires that all my hands-free devices can be used while driving. Even these devices are unsafe to use when you are moving down the road
-if you must use your cell phone keep conversation short, develop ways to get free of long winded friends and associates while on the road, never use the cell phone for social visiting
-hang up in tricky traffic situations
Do not use the equipment when approaching locations with heavy traffic, road construction, heavy pedestrian traffic, or severe weather conditions
-do not attempt to read or type messages on your satellite system while you are driving
How do you recognize a distracted driver?
-vehicles that may drift over the lane divider or within their own lane
-vehicles traveling at inconsistent speeds
-drivers who are preoccupied with Maps, food, cigarettes, cell phones, or other objects
-drivers who appear to be involved in conversation with their passengers
What is the difference between aggressive driving and road rage?
Aggressive driving is the act of operating a motor vehicle in a selfish, both, or pushy manner without regard for the rights or safety of others. Road rage is an emotional state of anger or hostility resulting from an incident involving the use of a motor vehicle which escalate into violent crimes/acts, threats or attempts of violent acts
What should you do when confronted by an aggressive driver?
-make every attempt to get out of their way
-put your pride in the backseat. Do not challenge them by speeding up or attempting to hold your own in your travel lane
-avoid eye contact
-ignore gestures and refuse to react with them
-Report aggressive drivers to the appropriate authorities by providing a vehicle description, license plate number, location, and if possible direction of travel
-if you have a cell phone and can safely do so call the police
-if an aggressive driver is involved in a crash farther down the road, stop a safe distance from the crash scene, wait for the police to arrive, and report the driving behavior that you witnessed
What are some things you can do to reduce your stress before and while you drive?
-listen to "easy listening "music
-give the driver your full attention, don't allow yourself to become distracted by talking on the phone, eating, etc.
-be realistic about your travel time. Expect delays because of traffic, construction, or bad weather and make allowances
-if you are going to be later than you expected-deal with it-take a deep breath and except the delay
-give other drivers the benefit of the doubt. Try to imagine why he/she is driving that way. Remember it has nothing to do with you
-slow down and keep your following distance reasonable
-don't drive slowly in the left lane
-be a cautious and courteous driver, (be my guest)
You should use will beans whenever you can. True or false?
What should you do before you drive if you are drowsy?
Pull off the road safely and get some sleep
What affects can wet brakes cause? How can you avoid these problems?
-what breaks can cause the brakes to be weak, to apply on evenly, or to grab, which can cause lack of breaking power, and jackknifing if you pull a trailer
-avoid driving through deep puddles or flowing water if possible
-slow down and place the transmission in low gear
-gently put on the brakes
-increase engine RPM and cross the water while keeping light pressure on the brakes
-when out of water maintain light pressure on the brakes for a short distance to allow them to heat up and dry out
-make a safe test stop
You should've let air out of Hot tire so the pressure goes back to normal. True or false?
You can safely remove the radiator cap as long as the engine isn't heated. True or false
What factors determine your selection of a "safe" speed , when going down a lob , steel downgrade?
-total weight of the vehicle and cargo
-length of the downgrade
-steepness of the downgrade
Why should you be in the proper gear before starting down a hill?
You will not be able to shift into a lower gear. You may not even be able to get back into any gear and all engine braking affect will be lost
Describe the proper breaking technique when going down a long, steep downgrade?
1. Apply brakes just hard enough to feel a definite slowdown
2.when your speed has been reduced to approximately 5 mph below your safe speed, release the brakes (about three seconds)
3.when your speed has increased to your " safe" speed repeat steps one and two
What types of vehicles can get stuck on a railroad-highway crossing?
-Low slung units (lowboy, car carrier, moving van, possum-belly livestock trailer)
-single-axle tractor pulling a long trailer with its landing gear set to accommodate a tandem-axle tractor
How long does it take for a typical tractor-trailer unit to clear a double track?
More than 15 seconds
Stopping is not always the safest thing to do in an emergency. True or false?
What are some advantages of going right instead of left around an obstacle?
- if the shoulders clear going right maybe best , since no one is likely to be driving on the shoulder but someone may be passing you on the left
-if you are blocked on both sides, move right. You won't force anyone into an opposing traffic lane and a possible head on collision
What is an "escape ramp" ?
It is designed to protect vehicles from damage
If a tire blows out you should put the brakes on hard to stop quickly. True or false?
How do you know if your vehicle has antilock brakes?
Tractors, trucks, and buses will have a yellow ABS malfunction lamps on the instrument panel. Trailers will have a yellow ABS malfunction lamps on the left either on the front or rear corner
What is the proper braking technique when driving a vehicle with antilock brakes?
-you've only the brake force necessary to stop safely and stay in control
-Break the same way regardless of whether you have ABS on a bus, tractor, the trailer, or both
-as you slow down monitor your tractor and trailer and back of the brakes (if safe) to stay in control
How do antilock brakes help you?
Antilock brakes help you avoid wheel lock up and maintain control
What are some things to do at a crashing to prevent another crash?
-protect the area
-care for injured
Name two causes of tire fire
under inflated tires and duals that touch
What kind of fires is a B:C extinguisher not good for?
B:C is designed to work on electrical fires and burning liquids only
When using your extinguisher, should you get as close as possible to the fire?
No, as far away as possible
Name causes a vehicle fires
After crashes -spilled fuel, improper use of flares
Tires-Under inflated tires and duals that touch
Electrical system-short circuit due to damaged insulation, loose connections
Fuel-Driver smoking, improper fueling, loose fuel connections
Cargo-flammable cargo, improperly sealed or loaded cargo, poor ventilation
Common medicines for colds can make you sleepy. True or false?
What should you do if you become sleepy while driving?
Stop to find a safe place to sleep, take a nap, avoid drugs
Coffee and a little fresh air will help a drink or sober up. True or false?
What is a hazardous materials placard?
Signs put on the outside of the vehicle that identify the hazard class of the cargo
Why are placards used?
To warn others of hazardous materials
What is "sleep debt"?
When you owe your body sleep because you don't get enough sleep and need to sleep
What are the dangers signals of drowsy driving?
-your eyes close or go out of focus by themselves
-having trouble keeping your head up
-wandering, disconnected thoughts
-not remembering driving the last few miles
-drifting between lanes, tailgate, or miss traffic signals
-Constant jerking the truck back into the lane
-drifted off the road and narrowly missed crashing
What four things related to cargo or drivers responsible for?
1. Inspecting your cargo
2.recognizing overload and poorly balanced weight
3.recheck cargo and securing devices as often as necessary during your trip to keep load secure
4. Knowing cargo does not restrict your access to emergency equipment
How often must you stop while on the road to check cargo?
-inspect cargo and it's securing devices again within the first 15 miles after beginning a trip
-recheck cargo in securing devices as often as necessary during the trip to keep load secured
-you need to inspect again after you have driven for three hours or 150 miles
-after every break you take during the drive
How is gross combination weight rating different from gross combination weight?
Gross combination weight rating is the maximum gross combination weight specified by the manufacturer for a specific combination of vehicles plus it's load. Gross combination weight is the total weight of a powered unit and trailer and cargo
Name two situations where legal maximum weight may not be safe
During bad weather and in mountains
What can happen if you don't have enough weight on the front axle?
It can make the steering axle weight too late to steer safely, can cause Poor traction, drive wheels may spent easily, during bad weather the truck may not be able to keep going
What is the minimum number of tiedowns for any flatbed load?
2, at least one tiedown for every 10 feet of cargo
What is the minimum number of tiedowns for a 20 foot world?
Name the two basic reasons for covering cargo on an open bed
To protect people from spilled cargo and to protect cargo from weather
What must you check before transporting A sealed load
You cannot inspect a sealed load but you should check that you don't exceed growth weight and axle weight limits
Why must air tanks be drained?
To drain Moisture and oil out of the tank
What is a supply pressure gauge used for?
To tell you how much air is in the air tank
All vehicles with airbrakes must have a low air pressure warning signal. True or false?
What are spring brakes used for?
If the airbrakes week down, Springs press the brakes on to stop the vehicle
Front wheel brakes are good under all conditions. True or false?
How do you know if your vehicle is equipped and with antilock brakes?
Tractors, trucks, and bosses will have yellow ABS malfunction lamps on the instrument panel. Trailers will have yellow ABS malfunction lambs on the left side either on the front or rear corner
What is a dual air brake system?
A dual Air brake system has two separate air brake systems, which is a single set of brake controls. Each system has its own air, tanks, hoses, lines, etc. one system typically operates the regular brakes on the rear axle or axles. The other system operates the regular brakes on the front axle or axels
What are the slack adjusters?
It is an adjusting nut on the backside of the brake drum used for adjusting the brake
How can you check the slack adjuster?
Park on level ground, turn off parking brakes, pull hard on each slack adjuster it shouldn't move more than 1 inch
How can you test the low pressure warning signal?
Shut off the engine with enough air pressure, turn on the electrical power and stepped on and off of the brake pedal until the low air pressure warning signal comes on
How can you check that the spring brakes come on automatically?
Step on and off of the break with the engine off the parking brake knob should pop out when air pressure falls between 20 to 40 PSI
What are the maximum leakage rate?
Less then 2 PSI in one minute for single vehicles and less than 3 PSI in one minute for combination vehicles
Why should you be in the proper gear before starting down a hill?
So you only have to apply the break just hard enough to feel a definite slow down
What factors can cause breaks to fade or fail?
Overheating, low air pressure and not relying on the engine braking affect
The use of breaks on the long steep downgrade is only a supplement to the breaking of fact of the engine. True or false?
If you are away from your vehicle only a short time you do not need to use the parking brake. True or false?
How often should you drain your air tanks?
You still have normal break functions if your ABS is not working. True or false?
How do you break when you drive a tractor-trailer combination with ABS?
-use only the braking force necessary to stop safely and stay in control
-Break the same way regardless of whether you have ABS on the tractor, trailer or both
-as you slow down, monitor your tractor and trailer and back off The brakes (if safe) to stay in control