Terms in this set (89)
Samuel de Champlain
An intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership fairly earned him the title "Father of New France"
Skilled Italian seafarer that persuaded monarchs to outfit him with three tiny but seaworthy ships, manned by a motley crew
In 1540-1542, he in a quest of fabled golden cities that turned out to be adobe pueblos, wandered with a clanking cavalcade through Arizona and New Mexico, penetrating as far east as Kansas.
Iron-fisted conqueror that crushed the Incas of Peru in 1532 and added a huge oars of booty to Spanish coffers.
Bartolome de Las Casas
a reform-minded Dominican friar
In 1519 he set sail from Cuba with 16 fresh horses and several hundred men aboard 11 ships, bound for Mexico and for destiny.
(1533-1603) Empress of the World and was accused of being vain, fickle, prejudiced and miserly, proved people and became a unusually successful ruler. Never married
Sir Francis Drake
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sir Edmund Andros
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-dau Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. They developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large complex societies in the unforgiving Ades Moutains.
Native American empire that controlled present-dau Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernan Cortes. They maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute. They came to be known for their advances in math and writing and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies.
Orthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor or more rational spirtuality
Ministers who took part in the revalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by Geroge Whitefield during the Great Awakening
Coureurs de bois
Translated as "runners of the woods," they were French fur-trappers, also known as "voyageurs" (travelers), who established trading posts throughout North Amerca. The fur trade wreaked havoc on the health and folkways of their Native Aemrican trading partners.
late 1500s; Bound together five tribes- the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onodagas, the Cayogas and the Senecas- in the Mohawk Valley of what is now New York State.
Defeated by the South Carolinians in the war of 1715-1716. The Yamasee defeat devastsed the last of the coastal Indian tribes I nthe southern colonies.
Religious group known for their tolerance, emphasis on peace, and idealistic Indian policy, who settled heavily in Pennsylvania in the seventieth and eighteenth centuries.
Armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen I nprotest against the Quiker establisment's lenient policies toward Native Americans.
French Protestant dissenters, the Huguenots wer egrnated limite dtoleration under the Edict of Nantes. After King Lous XIV outlawed Protestantism in 1685, many Highuenots fled elsewhere, including to British North America.
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico
16 century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentia, ebentually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires
English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds. Some of the most devout Puritans believed that only "visitble saints," should be admitted to church memberships.
Small group of Puritans who sought to break away entirely from the Church of ENlgland; after itially settling in Holland a number of Enlighs Serperatists made their way to Plymouth Bay, Massachusetts, in 1620
Migrants who, in exchange for transatlantic passage, bound themselves to a colonial employer for a tern of service, typically between four and seven years. Their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage I nthe colonies and facilitated settlement.
Short-term partnership between multiple investors to fund a commericial enterprise; such arrangments were used to fund England's early colonial vetures.
English joint-stock company that received a charter from King James I that allowed it to found the Virginia colony.
Royal African Company
English joint-stock company that enjoyed a state-granted monopoly on the colonial slave trade form 1672 until 1698. The supply of slaves to the North American colonies rose sharply once the company lost its monopoly privileges.
Pope's Rebillion/Pueblo Revolt
1680; Pueblo Indian rebellion that drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico
Great English Migration
Migration of 70,000 refuges from England to the North American colonies, primarily New England and the Caribbean. The 20,000 migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of pupoes- to establish a model Christian settlement in the New World
Seroes pf c;asjes betweem Englih settlers nad Pequot Indians I nthe Connecticut River valley. Ended I nthe slaughter of the Pequots by the Puritans and their Narragansett Indian allies.
King Philip's War
Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on Engilsh settlements in New England. The attacks slowed the westward migration of New England settlers for several decades
Salem Witch Trials
Series of witchcraft trials launche after a group of adolescent girls in Slem, Massachusetts, claimed to have been bewithed by ertain older women of the town. 20 individuals were put to dath before the trials were put to an end by the governor of Massachusetts.
Armed conflict between aspiring merchangts led by Jacob Leisler and the ruling elite of New Yor. One of many uprisings that erupted across the colonies when wealthy colonists attempted to re-create European social structures I nthe New World.
1st and 2nd Anglo-Powhatan Wars
16th century; Movement to reform the Catholic Church launched I nGermany by martin Luther. Reformers questioned the authority of the Pope, sought to eliminate the selling of indulgences, and encouraged the translation of the Bible from Latin, which few at the time could read. The Reformation was launched I nEngland in the 1530s when King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church
uprising of Virginia back coutry farmers and indentured servants led by plater Nathaniel Bacon; initially a response to Governor William Berkely's refusal to portect backcoutry settler from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into brader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite.
Began with an Indianattack on New Bern, Norht Carolina. After the Tuscaroras were defeated, remaining Indian survivors migrated northward, eventually joining the Iroquois Confederacy as its 6th nation
Eventually violent uprising of backcoutry settlers in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonian affairs yb the seaboard elite
Stone River Slave Revolt
Religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating minsters, most notably Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, palced an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality. A Scond Great Awakening arose in the 19th century.
Dominion of New England
Administrative the union cerated by royal authoryity, incorporating all of New England, New York, and East and West Jersey. Placed under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, who curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents wihout their consent, and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. Its collaps after the Groious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial oppisiton to strict royal control.
Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarchy, James II, who was replaced with Dutch-born William III and Mary II, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority.
"Sad night," when the Aztecs attacked Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochiitlan, killing hundreds. Corte slaid siege to the city the following yar, precipitating the fall of the Aztec empire and inaugurating threecenturies of Spanish rule.
Colonies where governors were appointed directly by the king. Thogh often competent administartors, the governors frequently ran into trouble with colonial lestlatures, which resented the imposition of control from across the Atlantic
Colonies- Maryland, Pennsylviania, and Delaware-under the control of local proprietors, who appointed colonial governors
Massachusetts Bay Colony
founded in 1630; established by non-separating Puritans, it soon grew to be the largest and most influential of the New England colonies
Sir Walter Raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina
First permanent English settlemtn in North America founded by the Virgina Company
Guaranteed inhabitants all the rights of Englishmen, which helped solidify colonists' ties to Britain during the early years of settlement.
Transatlantic voyage slaves endured between Africa and the colonies. Mortality rates were notoriously high
Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans
Also known as sumptuary aws, they are designed to restrict personal behavior I naccord with a strict code of morality. They were passed across the colonies, particulary in Purtian New England and Quaker Pennsylvania.
Act of Toleration
Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and theists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland would continue to attract a high proportion of catholic migrants throughout the colonial period.
Drafted by settlers in the Connecticute River valley, this document was the first "modern constituation" establishing a democratically controlled government. Key features of the document were borrowed for Connecticut's colonial charter and later, its state constitution.
Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through hEngland.
Legal principle that the oldest son inherits all family property or land. Landowners' youger sons, forced to seek their fortunes elsewhere, pioneered early exploration and settlement of the Americas.
Edict of Nantes
Decree issued by the French crown granting limited toleration to French Protestsants. Ended religious wats in France and inaugurated a period of French preeminence I nEurope and across the Atlantic. It repeal in 1685 prompted a fresh migration of Protestant Huguenots ot North America.
Agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower. Created a foundation for self-governemtn in the colony.
House of Burgesses
Representative parliamentary assembly created to govern Virgina, establishing a precedent for government in the English colonies.
Unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and only weak enforecemnet of Navigaton Laws. Lasted fr omteh Glorious Revolution to the end of the French and Indian war in 1763
Set of laws beginning in 1662 defining racial slavery. They stablished the hereditary nature of slavery and limited the rights and education of slaves.
Belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election.
Dominant theological credo of the New England Puritans based on the teachings of John Calvin. Calvinists believed in predestination- that only "the elct" were destined for salvation.
Calvinist doctrine that God has foreordained some people to be saved and some to be damned. Though their fate was irreversible, Calvinists, particularly those who believed they were destined for salvation, sought to lead sanctified lives in order to demonstrate to others that they were in fact members of the "elect"
Self-governing Puritan congregations without the hierarchical establishment of the Anglican Church
Agreement allowing unconverted offspring of church members to baptize their children. It signified a waning of religious zeal among second and third generation Puritans.
Belief that the elect need not obey the law of either God or man; most notably espoused in the colonies by Anne Hutchinson
Agricultural system employed by North America Indians as early as 100 ce.; maize beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields
Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey
The transfer of goods, crop, and diseases between new and Old World societies after 1492.
Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas, and in the particular, the discovery of vast bullion deposits, helped bring about Europe's transition to capitalism
False notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butcher the Indians and steal their gold in the name of Christ.
Exchange of rum, slaves, and molasses between the North America colonies, Africa, and the West Indies. A small but immensely profitable subset of the Atlantic trade.