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What is produced primarily in the ovaries in the female and in small amounts in the adrenal glands in males?
Estrogen
According to sliding filament theory, when does muscular contracting occur?
Actin and myosin filiments slide past each other, shortening the entire sarcomere.
What are sensitive to changes in tension and the rate of that change, protecting a muscle from possible injury?
Golgi tendon organs
Which of the following consists of a series of irregularly shaped bones divided into five different categories depending on where they are located in the backbone?
Vertebral column
refers to the movement of joint surfaces. The angular movement of bones in the human body occurs as a result of a combination of rolls, spins, and slides. A roll is a rotary movement, one bone rolling on another.
Arthrokinematics
Which gland produces the hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help prepare the body for activity and for the fight or flight response?
Adrenal
Which mechanoreceptor helps prevent muscles from stretching too far or too fast?
Muscle spindle
Which of the following glands releases growth hormone during childhood up until puberty?
Pituitary gland
Which of the following is a characteristic of muscle spindles?
They are sensitive to change in length of muscle and the rate of that change.
The body's ability to differentiate between walking on concrete and walking on sand is an example of which of the following functions of the nervous system?
Sensory
Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs through which of the following vessels?
Pulmonary arteries
When should the three measurements for resting heart rate be taken for greatest accuracy?
At the same time each day upon waking
What term describes the number of heart beats per minute and the amount of blood pumped per beat?
Cardiac output
Which of the following is a small terminal branch of an artery, which ends in capillaries?
Arteriole
Which term refers to the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction?
Stroke volume
Resting oxygen consumption is approximately how many mL of oxygen per kilogram body weight per minute?
3.5 mL
Which of the following is a system of organs that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream?
Respiratory system
After leaving the left ventricle, blood enters which structure?
Aorta
Which of the following is true of skeletal muscle?
It is a voluntary muscle.
In which of the following structures are water and chemicals exchanged between the blood and tissues?
Capillaries
What is the functional unit of the nervous system?
Neuron
Which systems accomplish human movement through their functional integration?
Muscular, nervous, and skeletal systems
Which of the following is made up of the upper and lower extremities as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdles and encompasses approximately 126 bones?
Appendicular skeleton
In the endocrine system, which of the following secretes hormones such as corticosteroids and catecholamines in response to stress?
Adrenal gland
Which term refers to a system of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream to regulate a variety of bodily functions and consists of host organs, chemical messengers, and target cells?
Endocrine system
For which activity is the oxidative system primarily used?
Jogging for 30 minutes
What usually happens after 90 minutes of exercise?
The majority of muscle glycogen stores are depleted.
How does metabolism behave during EPOC?
Remains elevated
Which of the following energy systems is used most when running a 10-second sprint?
ATP-PC
A client runs a mile in 6 min and 30 seconds. Which of the following energy systems is the client primarily using to produce energy?
Oxidative
Which of the following is true of glycogen?
It is a complex carbohydrate that can be rapidly broken down into glucose.
During glycolysis, in the presence of oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted into which important molecule in metabolism?
Acetyl coenzyme A
Which term refers to the assistance of amino acids in energy production during periods of starvation?
Gluconeogenesis
Which of the following energy pathways is used for activities lasting between 30 and 50 seconds?
Glycolysis
When an exercise is high intensity and lasts about 10 seconds, which of the following energy pathways is predominantly in use?
ATP-PC
In which of the following scenarios would energy be mostly derived from anaerobic metabolism?
When an athlete begins an activity
What are the structure and functions of the nervous, muscular, cardiovascular respiratory and endocrine systems?
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What are bioenergetics and metabolism? How are they related to exercise?
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