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25 terms

Unit 14 Isms: Transcendentalism and American Romanticism

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Transcendentalism
emphasis on the free life of the spirit and the need for each person to discover truth on his or her own
American Renaissance
literally movement that flourished after 1820
Harriet Beecher Stowe
(1811-1896) American abolitionist and author of Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin (Stowe)
had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States
James Fennimore Cooper
(1789-1851) created an American archetype through Leatherstocking Tales
Leatherstocking Tales (Cooper)
series of novels by American writer James Fennimore Cooper, each featuring the main hero Natty Bumppo
Ralph Waldo Emerson
(1803-1882) most influential spokesman for those who sought a national literature and art
"The American Scholar" (Emerson)
called on American writers to break free of European standards
Henry David Thoreau
(1817-1862) American author, poet, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist
Civil Disobedience (Thoreau)
defended disobedience of unjust laws
Walden (Thoreau)
personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, and manual for self reliance
Margaret Fuller
(1810-1850) journalist, women's rights activist associated with the American transcendental movement; book Woman in the Nineteenth Century considered major feminist work in the United States
Women in the Nineteenth Century (Fuller)
cast aside the doctrine of "separate spheres"; contended that no woman could achieve personal fulfillment without developing her intellectual abilities
Walt Whitman
(1819-1892) American poet, essayist; part of the transition between Transcendentalism and realism
Leaves of Grass (Whitman)
shattered existing poetic conventions
Nathaniel Hawthorne
(1804-1864) American novelist and short story writer
Scarlet Letter (Hawthorne)
explores themes of sin, and guilt
Herman Melville
(1819-1891) American novelist, short story writer, essayist and poet; work often classified as dark romanticism
Moby-Dick (Melville)
embodiment of American Romanticism
Edgar Allan Poe
(1809-1849): American writer, poet; part of the American Romantic Movement; best known for his tales of mystery
"The Raven" (Poe)
noted for its musicality, stylized language, and supernatural atmosphere
Dark romanticism
literary subgenre that emerged from the American Renaissance; works notably less optimistic than transcendental texts about mankind, nature, and divinity
Lyceum
an institution aimed at bringing culture to a broader public
Hudson River School
landscape painting that emphasized grandeur, emotion
Oversoul
denotes a supreme underlying unity which transcends duality or plurality