World History study guide chapter 1 & 2
Terms in this set (56)
the study of past societies through analysis of what people left behind
Methods of dating artifacts
one method~ radiocarbon dating, which by measuring the amount of radiocarbon left in the object scientist can figure out the age.
second method~ microscopic and biological analyses organic remains, such as blood, hairs, plant tissue, etc.
Characteristics of Paleolithic peoples
"old stone" early period of human history. close relationships, hunted, gathered, fished, etc.
is a humanlike creature that walks upright.
study of human life and culture
"handy human" used stone tools
"upright human' walked on two legs, fist hominid to leave Africa.
"wise human" mastery of fire and rapid brain growth.
Homo sapiens sapiens
"wise wise human" speed over the world, out of Africa theory. Had conflicts wth the Neanderthals
moved from place to place to survive
Neolithic Revolution effects
labor, trade, built walls for protection, artisans became very skilled, woman- caed for house an family, men- farming /animals.
metal started to be used for weapons, cooper was the first metal, bronze, iron
complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number if common elements.
government, cities, religion, social structure, writing, and art.
'wedge shaped" system of writing using reed stylus, impressions on clay tablets.
the flooding of the two rivers, creating a dark fertile soil
a government established by divine authority
a state with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside.
a massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated tot he chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city.
Sumerian city structure
surrounded by walls with defense towers all along it. buildings and houses made out of sun dried bricks. arches, domes
believing in many gods
Contributions made by Sumerians
wagon wheel, sundial, bronze out of copper and tin. mathematics and astronomy, number system based on 60, charted constellations, geometry to measure.
the most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptian monarchs; "great house" or "palace"
were tombs for the mummified bodies of pharaohs. Made in a triangle shape with stone, very large.
an administrative organization that relies on nonelectie officials and regular procedures.
"priest carvings" or "sacred writing" a complex system of writing that used both pictures and more abstract forms. Used by the ancient Maya and Egyptians
the process of slowly drying the dead body to prevent it from rotting. they would use spies, oils, salts, clean out the body, rap in linens, then seal in a tomb
Periods of Egyptian history characteristic of each
old kingdom- upper and lower Egypt. Great pyramids. mummification.
Middle Kingdom- golden age of stability. gods and pharaohs
Advancements made by Egyptians
hieroglyphics, pyramids, temples, advance meant in mathematics (calculate area on volume of flooding land) 365 day calendar by basing the their year on the movements o the moon and on the bright star Sirius.
a person who domesticates animals for food and clothing and moves along regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for those animals
they were not greek, but influenced the greek mainland. Eastern Mediterranean civilization. built palaces, traded pottery gold and silver jewelry. bathrooms, decor for homes.
number of gods they believed in. two groups, land gods and sun gods. Egyptian ruler took the title of "Son of Re" rulers were seen as an earthly form of Re, one of the sun god's names.
lived along the easter coast of the Mediterranean Sea. purple dye, glass and lumber. known for its alphabet now still used today.
Main cities Byblos, Tyre and Sidon.
The prophets declared that faithlessness to God would bring catastrophe, but turning from evil would bring God's mercy. Later they embraced a concern for all humanity. All nations would find peace with the God of Israel. They also cried out against social injustice. They condemned the rich for causing the poor to suffer.
They were a minor factor in the politics of the region. their religion known today as Judaism flourished and later influenced the religions of Christianity and Islam. religious beliefs eventually were written down in the Hebrew Bible, which is known to Christians as the Old Testament.
They focused on grazing animals rather than on farming. Because of drought the Israelites moved to Egypt, where they were enslaved until Moses led them out. The Israelites established control over all the land that came to be called Israel and made the city of Jerusalem its capital.
David's youngest son, King Solomon, expanded the government and army and encouraged trade. He is best known for building a temple in Jerusalem.
Location and civilization of Minoan civilization
Eastern Mediterranean on the island of Crete. Were not Greek, but they influenced the peoples of the Greek mainland. Discovered an enormous palace complex on Crete at Knossos, revealed a rich culture. Traded pottery and gold and silver jewelry from Crete for other goods.
The palace at Knossos was the royal seat of the kings. This elaborate building included numerous private living rooms for the royal family and workshops for making decorated vases, ivory figurines, and jewelry, bathrooms, decor, paintings, storerooms.
The centers of Minoan civilization suffered a sudden collapse around 1450 b.c. It is believe that a tidal wave triggered by a powerful volcanic eruption on the island of Thera or an invasion by mainland Greeks known as the Mycenaeans.
They were one of the most significant nomadic peoples. It refers to a particular group of people who spoke a language derived from a single parent tongue. Indo-European languages include Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and the Germanic languages They moved into Europe, India, and western Asia.
created an empire in western Asia/threatened the power of the Egyptians. They were the first Indo-Europeans to use iron, iron weapons were stronger and cheaper to make because of the widespread availability of iron ore. Around 1200 b.c invaders called the "Sea Peoples," destroyed the Hittite empire.
The end of the Hittite kingdom and the weakening of Egypt.
expand their trade of purple dye, glass, and lumber from the cedar forests of Lebanon. They built ships and became great international sea traders. Best known for its alphabet, semitic language, simplified their writing by using 22 different signs to represent the sounds of their speech.
God made a covenant, or contract, with them. God promised to protect them if they followed his Torah, Judaism's foundational set of precepts.
called themselves the Jews. Jews are monotheistic, believing in one God. God rules the world; all peoples are his servants, whether they know it or not thought the Jews
the highest mountains in the world
moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern India. They lived in tribal groups and had a strong warrior tradition. The Aryan moved eastward from the Indus Valley, across the fertile plain of the Ganges, and later southward into the Deccan Plateau. Eventually they extended their political control throughout India. The ongoing migrations and interaction between the Aryans and the Dravidians
The basic crops wheat, barley, and millet and rice, cotton and spices such as pepper, ginger, and cinnamon.
Aryans had no written language. started writing in Sanskrit, an Indo-European language. These early writings, the Vedas.
descendants of the Indus Valley people
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
Two of the ruins were the sites of the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Historians call it the Harappan or Indus civilization.
Both cities were carefully planned. The broad main streets, houses, courtyards surrounded by rooms. Public wells provided a regular supply of water for all the inhabitants. Bathrooms featured an advanced drainage system. Harappan rulers based their power on a belief in divine assistance.
The Harappan- farming. The Indus River flooded every year, providing rich soil to grow wheat, barley, and peas. The Indus Valley civilization also carried on trade as far away as Mesopotamia. Sumerian textiles and food were traded for Indus Valley copper, lumber, precious stones, cotton, and various luxury goods.
the first writing system of the Aryans, developed around 1000 B.C.
reveal that between 1500 b.c. and 400 b.c., India was a world of many small kingdoms. Various leaders, known as rajas (princes), carved out small states. These kingdoms were often at war with one another as alliances shifted between them
most vivid symbol of men's dominance. The dead were placed on heaps of material called pyres, which were then set on fire. It required a wife to throw herself on her dead husband's funeral pyre. A Greek visitor reported that "those women who refused to burn themselves were held in disgrace."
the duty of members of the family to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family.
second dynasty. China under the Shang dynasty was mostly a farming, society ruled by an aristocracy whose major concern was war. mastery of bronze.
Shang capital Anyang just north of the Huang He in north-central China. Excavations reveal huge city walls, royal palaces, and large royal tombs.
The Shang king ruled from the capital city, Anyang. divided into territories governed by aristocratic military leaders, called warlords, but the king had the power to choose or remove these leaders.
The Zhou dynasty, the longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history. At the head of the government was the Zhou king, who was served by an increasingly large and complex bureaucracy. The peasants worked on lands owned by their lord. A class of artisans and merchants lived in walled towns under the direct control of the local lord. Merchants did not operate freely but were considered the property of the local lord. There was also a slave class.
The Zhou dynasty claimed that it ruled China because it possessed the Mandate of Heaven.
are characters, or picture symbols, that represent an object, like a mountain or the sun.
are characters that combine two or more pictographs to represent an idea—the word east symbolizes the sun rising behind the trees.
Geographic features of China
The Huang He or Yellow River, stretches across China carrying its rich yellow silt from Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean. The Chang Jiang or Yangtze River, is longer. flowing across central China before emptying into the Yellow Sea. The cultivated valleys of these rivers emerged as one of the great food-producing areas of antiquity.
China is not just a land of fertile fields. Only 10 percent of the total land area is suitable for farming, consists of mountains and deserts on its northern and western frontiers.
Enemies of the Chinese
Class system of Shang dynasty
The aristocrats, the chief landowners, waged war and served as officials. peasants, merchants and artisans, as well as slaves.
Mandate of heaven
The Mandate of Heaven was closely tied to the pattern of dynastic cycles. Zhou dynasty claimed that it ruled China because it possessed the Mandate of Heaven. It was believed that Heaven,which was an impersonal law of nature, kept order in the universe through the Zhou king. The king was the link between Heaven and Earth. Thus, the king ruled by a mandate, or authority to command, from Heaven. The concept of the heavenly mandate became a basic principle of Chinese government.