*What is Translation?
The process of using tRNA and mRNA to put together amino acids at the ribosome.
*What is the function of mRNA?
To bring the instructions to make a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.
*What are three differences between RNA and DNA?
RNA has ribose, RNA has uracil, RNA not a double helix
*What is an exon?
Pieces of mRNA that do code for the protein. These are spliced together and go to the ribosome
*What occurs during RNA processing?
putting a 5' guanine cap and a poly A tail on the 3' end prior to the mRNA leaving the nucleus
*What is the function of a spliceosome?
snRNPs and proteins that cut out introns from mRNA and join the adjacent exons together to make mature mRNA
*In eukaryotes, what are the proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase to start transcription?
*What is the function of Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase?
An enzyme that matches up the tRNA with the correct amino acid and catalyzes the creation of a covalent bond between them
*A tRNA leaves from this area on the ribosome after the amino acid it was carrying is added to the growing polypeptide chain in translation is called___________
E site (exit site)
*The area of the ribosome that holds the tRNA that is carrying the growing polypeptide chain in translation is called___________
P site (peptidyl-tRNA site
*The area on the ribosome that holds the tRNA that is carrying the next amino acid to be added to the growing polypeptide chain in translation.
A site (aminoacyl-tRNA site)
*The order that a codon goes through the E site, E site and P site of the ribosome during translation is__________
*What is a protein's primary structure?
The name for the structure of a protein that is the amino acid sequence without folding
*What is the job of a Chaperonin?
Helps an amino acid sequence fold into the secondary and tertiary structure correctly
*Name two post translational modifications.
Addition of sugars, lipids, or phosphate groups
Removal of one or more amino acids from the amino end
Cleaving a part of the chain
Addition of a signal peptide
*The end of the growing RNA strand to which RNA polymerase can add ribonucleotides is the _________
*Due to this phenominon, many genes can give rise ot two or more different polypeptides, depending upon which areas of the mRNA are treated as exons.
Alternative RNA splicing`
*The term for the flexible base pairing between some tRNAs and some codons. The first two positions must match, but the 3rd can be different is ____________
*What does it mean that the genetic code is "universal"?
All organisms on earth use the same genetic code