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AP biology DNA and Protein Synthesis
Terms and problems involving protein synthesis and inheritance.
*What is Transcription?
The process of making mRNA from DNA in the nucleus.
*What is Translation?
The process of using tRNA and mRNA to put together amino acids at the ribosome.
*What is the function of mRNA?
To bring the instructions to make a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.
*What is the function of tRNA?
Molecule that brings amino acids to the ribosome during translation.
*What is the function of rRNA?
Ribosomes are made of this molecule. Ribosomes make proteins.
*What are the three types of RNA?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA
*What are three differences between RNA and DNA?
RNA has ribose, RNA has uracil, RNA not a double helix
*What is an anticodon?
3 bases on tRNA molecules that are complementary to codons
*What is a codon?
3 bases on mRNA that code for an amino acid
*What are the monomers of proteins?
*What is the complementary DNA strand for the DNA sequence: AGG?
*What is the complementary RNA sequence for the DNA seqeuence: TAC?
*How many nucleotides code for each amino acid?
*What is the function of RNA polymerase?
Enzyme that makes mRNA from DNA during transcription.
*Where does transcription occur in eukaryotic cells?
In the nucleus
*Where does translation occur?
At Ribosomes in the cytoplasm or attached to the Rough ER
*What is the anticodon that would match to UAG?
*What is a purine?
Term for nucleotide bases with 2 rings.
*What is a pyrimidines
Term for nucleotide bases with 1 ring.
*Are adenine and guanine purines or pyrimidines?
*Are cytosine, uracil and thymine
*sugar and phosphate
Make up the backbone of DNA or RNA.
*What is the name of the sugar in a DNA nucleotide?
*What is the name of the sugar in RNA?
*What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide.
Sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base
*RNA base complementary to Adenine
*What is an intron?
Pieces of mRNa that do not code for the protein. They stay in the nucleus
*What is an exon?
Pieces of mRNA that do code for the protein. These are spliced together and go to the ribosome
*What term means a Small nucleotide ribonucleoprotein that recognize introns for splicing mRNA
*What is the TATA box?
the promoter sequence in eukaryotes
*What occurs during RNA processing?
putting a 5' guanine cap and a poly A tail on the 3' end prior to the mRNA leaving the nucleus
*What is the function of a spliceosome?
snRNPs and proteins that cut out introns from mRNA and join the adjacent exons together to make mature mRNA
*Which carbon on the sugar in a nucleotide that has an OH group?
*Which carbon on the sugar in a nucleotide that has a phosphate group?
*In eukaryotes, what are the proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase to start transcription?
*What is the function of Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase?
An enzyme that matches up the tRNA with the correct amino acid and catalyzes the creation of a covalent bond between them
*What is an Aminoacyl-tRNA?
A tRNA with its attached amino acid...also called a charged tRNA
*A tRNA leaves from this area on the ribosome after the amino acid it was carrying is added to the growing polypeptide chain in translation is called___________
E site (exit site)
*The area of the ribosome that holds the tRNA that is carrying the growing polypeptide chain in translation is called___________
P site (peptidyl-tRNA site
*The area on the ribosome that holds the tRNA that is carrying the next amino acid to be added to the growing polypeptide chain in translation.
A site (aminoacyl-tRNA site)
*The order that a codon goes through the E site, E site and P site of the ribosome during translation is__________
*What is a protein's primary structure?
The name for the structure of a protein that is the amino acid sequence without folding
*What is the job of a Chaperonin?
Helps an amino acid sequence fold into the secondary and tertiary structure correctly
*Name two post translational modifications.
Addition of sugars, lipids, or phosphate groups
Removal of one or more amino acids from the amino end
Cleaving a part of the chain
Addition of a signal peptide
*The end of the growing RNA strand to which RNA polymerase can add ribonucleotides is the _________
*What does mature mRNA mean?
mRNA after splicing and processing
*Due to this phenominon, many genes can give rise ot two or more different polypeptides, depending upon which areas of the mRNA are treated as exons.
Alternative RNA splicing`
*The term for the flexible base pairing between some tRNAs and some codons. The first two positions must match, but the 3rd can be different is ____________
*What does it mean that the genetic code is "universal"?
All organisms on earth use the same genetic code
*What is pre-mRNA?
mRNA right after transcription, before splicing and processing
*Put these words in the correct order:
protein, DNA, mRNA
*Transcribe this DNA sequence to mRNA
*What is the anticodon for the mRNA codon CCG? Where would it be found?
GGC on a tRNA
Would a protein that will be ultimately exported from the cell likely be made on a ribosome that is free in the cytoplasm or one that is attached to ER?
Attached to ER.