28 terms

AP biology DNA and Protein Synthesis

Terms and problems involving protein synthesis and inheritance.
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*What is Transcription?
The process of making mRNA from DNA in the nucleus.
*What is Translation?
The process of using tRNA and mRNA to put together amino acids at the ribosome.
*What is the function of mRNA?
To bring the instructions to make a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.
*What is the function of tRNA?
Molecule that brings amino acids to the ribosome during translation.
*What is the function of rRNA?
Ribosomes are made of this molecule. Ribosomes make proteins.
*What are the three types of RNA?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA
*What are three differences between RNA and DNA?
RNA has ribose, RNA has uracil, RNA not a double helix
*What is an anticodon?
3 bases on tRNA molecules that are complementary to codons
*What is a codon?
3 bases on mRNA that code for an amino acid
*What are the monomers of proteins?
amino acids
*What is the complementary DNA strand for the DNA sequence: AGG?
TCC
*What is the complementary RNA sequence for the DNA seqeuence: TAC?
AUG
*How many nucleotides code for each amino acid?
Three
*What is the function of RNA polymerase?
Enzyme that makes mRNA from DNA during transcription.
*Where does transcription occur in eukaryotic cells?
In the nucleus
*Where does translation occur?
At Ribosomes in the cytoplasm or attached to the Rough ER
*What is the anticodon that would match to UAG?
AUC
*sugar and phosphate
Make up the backbone of DNA or RNA.
*What is the name of the sugar in a DNA nucleotide?
Deoxyribose
*What is the name of the sugar in RNA?
Ribose
*What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide.
Sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base
*RNA base complementary to Adenine
Uracil
*What term means a Small nucleotide ribonucleoprotein that recognize introns for splicing mRNA
sNRP
*What does it mean that the genetic code is "universal"?
All organisms on earth use the same genetic code
*Put these words in the correct order:
protein, DNA, mRNA
DNA---mRNA--Protein
*Transcribe this DNA sequence to mRNA
ATTCCGG
UAAGGCC
*What is the anticodon for the mRNA codon CCG? Where would it be found?
GGC on a tRNA
Would a protein that will be ultimately exported from the cell likely be made on a ribosome that is free in the cytoplasm or one that is attached to ER?
Attached to ER.