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102 terms

art history

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Botticelli's "Primavera" is based on classical sources, particularly _______.
the art, literature, and mythology of the Greco-Roman world.
Unlike tempera paint, ______ paint drys slowly, giving the artist more time to work areas.
oil
The disguised symbolism in the Mérode Altarpiece includes the ____.
A. candle

B. lilies

C. towels
Correct
D. all of these choices
When open, the ______ reveals a splendid painting of humanity's redemption through Christ.
Ghent Altarpiece
Rogier's "Deposition" makes an unforgettable ______ impact.
emotional
Which pictorial strategy did Rogier employ in the Deposition?
compositional unity through movement
The calendar in Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry depicts ____
A. nobility

B. peasantry

C. seasonal tasks
Correct
D. all of these choices
The most common type of printmaking in the 15th and 16th centuries were/was _______.
relief and intaglio
Who won the 1401 competition to design the Baptistery doors for the Cathedral of Florence?
Ghiberti
The classical principle of contrapposto, or weight shift, was reintroduced into Western art by the sculptor ____.
Donatello
Which of the following families once owned Donatello's David?
Medici family
Brunelleschi's detailed study and recording of Roman architectural monuments became the catalyst for the development of ____.
linear perspective
Which of the following is a classical reference on Ghiberti's 1401 competition panel?
the naked figure of Isaac
Masaccio made the figures in his Tribute Money appear bulky by modeling with a/an ____.
specific light source outside the picture
In Masaccio's Holy Trinity, the vanishing point can be found ____.
at the foot of the Cross
Masaccio made the figures in his Tribute Money appear bulky by modeling with a/an ____.
specific light source outside the picture
Chiaroscuro is the use of gradiations of light and dark to produce the effect of _______.
modeling
In Masaccio's Holy Trinity, the vanishing point can be found ____.
. at the foot of the Cross
Masaccio painted in _______, a fast-drying medium that could not be corrected.
fresco
_______ Hospital of the Innocents, often called the first Renaissance building, embodies the rationality of classical architecture with its use of cubical modules.
Brunelleschi's
The fresco, _______, depicts the event on which the Popes base their authority.
"Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St. Peter"
"Trompe l'oeil" is French for _______.
"fool the eye"
List at least five symbols in Jan van Eyck's Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride. Explain their meanings.
Mirror - eye of God observing

Dog - Loyalty, or the hope of a new child

Green Dress - Hope for becoming a mother

Single Candle - The presents of the Holy Ghost

Cherries - Love
Explain the advantages of oil paint over tempera.
Oil based paint lasts much longer, has more vibrant color, and can be left open much longer before drying.
Describe one-point linear perspective.
One point linear perspective is the easiest way to depict 3D form. All siedes of all objects are moving away from us in one direction to the point, which itself is called "the central vanishing point."
Leonardo da Vinci's paintings are characterized by ____.
sfumato
Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco includes ____.
prophets and sibyls
Which artist applied for a position by telling his prospective patron that he could "contrive various and endless means of offence and defense"?
Leonardo da Vinci
Which of these is a Mannerist artist?
Pontormo
Giorgione's paintings are known for their ____.
poetic themes
The term terribilità is most often used to refer to ____.
Michelangelo
The façades of Palladio's Villa Rotunda include ____.
temple porches
What work of architecture displays Mannerist characteristics?
The Palazzo del Te
Mannerist art is characterized by ____
artifice

B. ambiguous spaces

C. unusual treatments of common themes
Correct
D. all of these choices
Titian's Madonna of the Pesaro Family exemplifies Titian's ability to ____.
convey light through color
How did Michelangelo adjust Bramante's plan for the new St. Peter's?
He added a double-columned portico.
Venetian painting is known for its ____.
colorism
The Escorial is a ____.
palace and monastery
El Greco's art is characterized by ____.
Byzantine and Venetian influences

B. elongated figures and undefined space

C. fervent Spanish Catholicism
Correct
D. all of these choices
Pieter Bruegel's Hunters in the Snow is one of six paintings of the ____.
seasons of the year
Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece is characterized by ____.
an exacting rendering of pain
Which of the following was NOT included in Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece?
Presentation
What anamorphic element appears in Holbein's French Ambassadors?
death's-head
The plan of Escorial is supposedly based on the ____.
gridiron of St. Lawrence
How does Dürer's Four Apostles reveal his Lutheran sentiments?
He places Peter behind the Gospel writers
Pieter Aertsen's Meat Still-Life is an allegory of ____.
salvation
Quinten Massys's Money-Changer and his Wife warns viewers to ____.
balance worldly and spiritual concerns
Leonardo's Last Supper breaks with traditional iconography by ____.
placing Judas on the same side of the table as Christ and the other Disciples
The first known Northern European self-portrait by a woman is by ____.
Caterina van Hemessen
Which subject is not represented in the Stanza della Segnatura fresco paintings by Raphael?
rhetoric
How does the Stanza della Segnatura reflect Western learning?
The room has four frescoes Theology (Disputa), Law (Justice), Poetry (Parnassus), and Philosophy (School of Athens) respectively. Renaissance society understood this to be the sum of Western learning.
How did Pieter Bruegel the Elder explore human nature in his paintings?
He focused on the everyday lives of Netherlandish people. "Netherlandish Proverbs" offer an intimate look at human behavior using humor, and "Hunters in the Snow" carries on the seasonal depictions of the Books of Hours by focusing on the return of a winter hunt.
How did Holbein create a convincing illusion of the two ambassadors? Give examples.
Holbein created a detailed study of reality combining the best of the north European and Italian method: observation, chiaroscuro, linear perspective, and the use of oil paint to create minute detailing throughout the painting. For instance, you can see the very slender broken string on the instrument.
The Baroque period of art took place between 1600 and 1700 throughout _______.
Europe
Poussin's painting is most like the work of ____.
Raphael
Artemisia Gentileschi was one of the followers of ____.
Caravaggio
Seventeenth-century Italian architecture was ____.
sculptural
Vermeer was known to use ____.
a camera obscura
Bernini's Baldacchino served to _____.
mark the ancient grave of St. Peter.

B. frame the throne of St. Peter.

C. deliver the triumphant message of the church.
Correct
D. all of these
Velázquez began his career in ____.
Seville
Bernini's piazza at Saint Peter's ____.
symbolized the Counter Reformation
Rembrandt's The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq represents ____.
a military company assembling for a parade
Tenebrism means painting ____.
in the dark manner.
Frans Hals is best known for his ____.
casual portraits of civic groups
Unlike Michelangelo's version, Bernini's David represents the moment ____ his confrontation of Goliath.
during
"The Glorification of Saint Ignatius" is
an illusionistic ceiling fresco.
Jacob van Ruisdael specialized in ____.
landscapes
Which answer best describes Annibale Carracci's style?
classical
The Palace at Versailles symbolizes the ____.
power of the absolute monarch
The work of which three artists influenced Rubens' Elevation of the Cross?
Michelangelo, Tintoretto, and Caravaggio
Terms associated with still-life painting include vanitas and ____.
memento mori
Rembrandt is known for his ____.
masterful use of light and shadow

B. Protestant interpretations of Scripture

C. penetrating images of the human soul
Correct
D. all of these choices
How did Fra Andrea Pozzo create the illusion of Heaven opening above the heads of the congregation in the church of Sant'Ignazio?
He illusionistically continued the church's architecture into the vault
Las Meninas is a/an ____.
declaration of the status of the court artist
The Baroque artwork of the Dutch Republic favored
genre scenes of everyday life.

B. detailed rendering of homes, fabrics, things.

C. vanitas with memento mori.
Correct
D. all of the above.
Rembrandt's Hundred Guilder Print is a/an ____.
etching
Claude Lorrain is known for his ____.
landscapes
Explain Poussin's ideas about the "grand manner" of painting.
The term is applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting in academic theory considered appropriate to subjects. A derivative from classic art.


Feedback: Artists must choose grand subjects (religion, battles, heroic actions), avoid tiny details and low subjects.
Briefly describe the characteristics of Caravaggio's style.
Caravaggio's style was that of intense realism. Contrasts from light to dark used to emphasize certain aspects of his paintings, such as coexisiting space.


Feedback: Caravaggio used dynamic composition, tenebroso or "night lighting" that utilized strong contrasts of light and dark, and realistic detail.
Comment: What do you mean by coexisting space?
How did Frans Hals revolutionize Dutch painting?
Hal produced lively portraits that seemed far more relaxed than traditional formulaic portraiture. He injected an engaging spontaneity to his images and conveyed the individuality of his sitters as well.His manner of execution intensified the casualness, immediacy, and intimacy in his paintings. Because the touch of his brush was light and fleeting as the moment he captured the pose, the figure, the highlights on clothing, ad the facials all seemed instantaniously created.


Feedback: Hals painted portraits that captured the spirit of the sitter in a seemingly spontaneous and unposed image. He employed spontaneous and loose brushstrokes and rejected the conventions of group portraiture in favor of impromptu effects.
Comment: good!
Who is considered the first modern art historian?
Winckelmann
What is a grand tour?
the trip wealthy Europeans and Americans made to Italy
Which artist made portraits in the grant manner?
Reynolds
Which artist is known for painting vedute?
Canaletto
What type of Rococo painting depicted the outdoor amusements and entertainments of the upper classes?
fête galante
Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe illustrates the death of a/an ____ soldier.
British
David's Death of Marat illustrates an episode from the ____.
French Revolution
The eighteenth-century philosopher who stressed the importance of the natural goodness of human beings was ____.
Rousseau
The Enlightenment idea of the "natural man" may be seen in paintings by ____.
Chardin
At the turn of the century, the French Academy was divided between the ____.
Rubenistes and the Poussinistes
Which artist brought scientific showmanship and dramatic presentation to his painting?
Joseph Wright of Derby
The artist whose work best spoke for the French Revolution was ____
David
Jefferson based his design for the Rotunda of the University of Virginia on the work of ____.
Palladio
Chardin's Saying Grace exemplifies the French ____.
rejection of Rococo frivolity

B. interest in the natural

C. taste for sentimental narrative
Correct
D. all of these choices
William Hogarth's paintings ____
satirized the newly prosperous middle class
Which answer best describes the paintings by John Singleton Copley?
down to earth and informal
Soufflot's Pantheon demonstrates the revival of ____ cultures.
Roman
Which American president was also an architect?
Thomas Jefferson
A painting that shows an example of virtue is also known as a/an ____.
exemplum virtutis
Give three reasons why "Oath of the Horatti is a Neoclassical painting.
It was in Greek style.

Inspiring heroic and patriotic subjects.

It showed nobel events and the progress of the human spirit.


Feedback: David's subject matter was a story of Roman bravery and selflessness. He dressed his figures in ancient clothing and idealized their features. His overall style has a classical solidity and sense of seriousness.
Why did Thomas Jefferson choose a Neoclassical style for Monticello and Washington, D.C.?
Because he believed in the values with which it was associated mortality, idealism, patriotism, and civic virtue.


Feedback: The style was associated with morality, civic virtues, idealism, patriotism, and republicanism.
Who was Johann Winckelmann, and what was his significance to the history of art?
He was widely recognized as the 1st modern art historian. He published Reflections of imitation of Greek works in Painting and Sculpture. His classical are was far superior to the "natural" art of his day.


Feedback: Winckelmann was a German critic and the first modern historian of art whose book on Greek art helped spread the taste for Neoclassicism.