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Biology 1620 Exam 1
Terms in this set (47)
Change within a population of organisms over time.
The best adaptive individuals to the environment will survive and reproduce at a higher rate (Survival and reproduction of the fittest).
The five conditions that must exist within a population in order for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to exist (with that population).
No natural selection
If the five conditions for Hardy-Weinberg are met within a population, then
evolution will NOT occur
The phenotypic average within a population (for a polygenic trait) changes due to selection against (just) one of the phenotypic extremes for traits).
Intermediate phenotypes will be selective against (for a polygenetic trait), resulting in a bimodal distribution of phenotypes within the population
A type of natural selection in which individuals expressing intermediate phenotypes have the highest relative fitness.
New alleles are introduced into a population by the movement of individuals between populations.
This process leads to fluctuation of allelic frequencies and loss of rare alleles within a population due to chance.
Which describes the type of genetic drift which occurs when a population is reduced in size to a small number of individuals, and then re-expands?
Genetic drift is evolutionary significant in_____________populations.
Natural selection typically__________ the phenotypic diversity of a population.
Briefly state the biological species concept:
Group of populations in which the individuals are similar and can successfully interbreed. (produce fertile offspring)
Morphological species concept:
The concept that all individuals of a species are similar phenotypically.
Two organisms do NOT mate because one reproduces nocturnally and the other diurnally.
Two organisms do NOT mate because they do not understand each other's courtship or mating behavior.
Two organisms mate and form a zygote, but GENETIC INCOMPATIBILITY leads to early death of the resulting individual. A postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanism in which a hybrid individual has a low probability of survival to reproductive age.
Ecological isolation is an example of a _________ isolating mechanissm.
Pattern of speciation that requires geographic (barrier) separation that prevents gene flow between two or more populations of an ancestral species.
The evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms between two populations that are geographically separated. (New species can form).
1- 2 or more populations become geographic isolated.
2- Genetic divergence
3- Isolating mechanisms evolves resulting in a new species.
Sympatric speciation (2):
The result of speciation in organisms that live in a common area.
Speciation that occurs without the geographical isolation of populations.
The pattern of polyploid formation in which hybrids are formed between two different species, folloing by doubling of the chromosome number (in the hybrid) is called_______.
Formation of new species by polyploid is common in among ________.
The pattern of speciation by which an ancesteral colonazing species moves into an "opend" habitat (i.e. one with availabel niches) and deversifies into multiple closely related species is calleld:
Which of these describes the interaction in the "hybrid zone" between two dissimilar populations in which members of the two populations mare and form hybrids resulting in such a high rate of gene-flow that population merge?
Using the information provided in question #24, the populations described should be regarded as:
The same species
Which of these describes the tempo of evolution in which a lineage of organisms remains relatively unchanged over long spans of time (stasis), followed by relatively rapid speciation?
27- List the ranks of taxonomical hierarchy in their correct order:
Which of these describe a lineage of organisms that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants?
Which of these describes a structure or feature present within two different species that are similar due to derivation from common ancestors?
The independent evolution of similar structures or features in separate lines of evolution (e.g. camera-type eyes in vertebrates and mollusks) is called
Convergent evolution (Divergent evolution would be evolution from common ancestor opposite from convergent)
The loss of an evolved structure or feature with in a lineage which reverts the trait back to the ancestral state (e.g., loss of legs by snake within the reptile lineage) is called:
In respect to mammals, hair is a____________.
Shared derived character
In respect to mammals, the vertebral cilim is a _________.
Shared ancestral character
A shared derived characteristic is called________.
In cladistics, evolutionary relationships (i.e phylogeny) is inferred from_________.
shared derived characters (only)
In cladistics, all lineages (clades) are intended to be______.
Explain how the principle of parsimony is applied to choosing between alternate cladogram:
A pre-existing structure that fulfills one role is evolutionarily modified in a way that is adaptive for a different role.
Modification of the rate of growth in different parts of the body during development that dramatically changes proportionality.
The earliest cells to evolve were most likely ______in organization.
Current research suggests the earliest self-replicating molecules with the capacity of inheritance ( i.e. The earliest genetic molecule)were
Earliest fossils showing evidence of sexual reproduction
1.1 billion years ago
Earliest fossils of multicellular animals
565 million years ago
Name one general group of organisms for whom the biological species concept is not adequate:
Some times individuals of similar species that live in the same geographical area interact by specializing in different niches (this is because the most different members of each population are favored over those that have overlapping nitch preferences). This type of ecological interaction is called?
What was demonstrated by the "scale flask" experiment of Miller and Urey?
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