NERVOUS SYSTEM & ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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Nervous System
The electrochemical communication system of the body
Neurons
The building blocks of the nervous system
Neuron
A nerve cell
Dendrite
The branching extensions of a neuron that receive information and conduct impulses toward the cell body (soma)
Soma
The cell body of a neuron, which contains the nucleus and other parts that keep the cell healthy
Axon
The extension of a neuron through which neural impulses are sent
Myelin Sheath
protects the axon and influences the speed of the neural impulse
Axon Terminals
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
Action Potential
a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron
Refractory Period
The "recharging phase" during which a a neuron, after firing, cannot generate another action potential
Resting Potential
The state of a neuron when it is at rest and capable of generating an action potential
All-or-None Principle
The principle stating that if a neuron fires, then it always fires at the same intensity
Synapse
The tiny, fluid-filled gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another
Neurotransmitters
A chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential
Excitatory Effect
A neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or "fire"
Inhibitory Effect
A neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or "fire"
Receptor Cells
Specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy into action potentials (neural impulses) that the brain can process
Sensory Nerves
Nerves that carry information from the sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain
Interneurons
Nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord responsible for processing information
Motor Nerves
Nerves that carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The sensory and motor nerves that connect the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs
Sympathetic Nervous System
The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
Endocrine System
a set of glands that produce hormones, chemical messengers that circulate in the blood
Hormone
A chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands and circulated in the blood
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system's "master gland" that, in conjunction with adjacent the brain area, controls the other endocrine glands
Hypothalamus
the brain region controlling the pituitary.
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine gland that helps regulate the energy level in the body
Adrenal Gland
Endocrine glands that help to arouse the body in times of stress
Pancreatic Gland
Regulates the level of blood sugar in the blood
Sex Glands
Ovaries (females) and testes (males) are the glands that influence emotion and physical development.
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