Hypothalamus

Neuroscience-Block VII
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What separates the hypothalamus from the septal nuclei?
Lamina terminalis
What are the 4 divisions of the hypothalamus?
Preoptic area
Periventricular zone
Medial zone
Lateral zone
The preoptic zone of the hypothalamus is derived from what embryonic structure?
Telecephalon
What is produced by the medial preoptic nucleus?
GnRH
What nucleus of the hypothalamus is larger in males than females?
Medial preoptic nucleus
What fibers are found in the lateral zone of the hypothalamus?
Medial forebrain bundle
The medial forebrain bundle connects what 2 structures?
Hypothalamus and spetal nuclei of reticular formation
What nuclei are located within the lateral zone of the hypothalamus?
Lateral hypothalamic nucleus
Tuberal nuclei
What are the functions of the lateral hypothalamic nucleus?
Histaminergic (histamine releasing)
Feeding center
What are the 3 regions of the medial zone of the hypothalamus?
Supraoptic region
Tuberal region
Mammillary region
What are the 4 nuclei located within the supraoptic region of the medial zone of the hypothalamus?
Supraoptic
Paraventricular
Suprachiasmatic
Anterior
What is synthesized by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei?
Oxytocin
ADH
What are the conditions is associated with destruction of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei?
Neurogenic diabetes insipidus
From what structure does the supraciasmatic nucleus recieve input and via what tract?
Retina via retinohypothalamic tract
What is the main function of the cells of the anterior nucleus?
Maintenance of body temperature
Which nucleus responds to increased body temperature, and which responds to decresed body temperature?
Increased body temp: anterior nucleus
Decreased body temp: posterior hypothalamic nucleus
A lesion in the anterior nucleus causes what condition?
Hyperthermia
What are the unique features of the circumventricular organs?
Lack blood-briain barrier
Contain chemoreceptors and neurosecretory functions
What is the function of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT)?
Fever production (preventing heat loss when comind in contact with pyrogens)
What nucleus is considered the satiety center?
***Ventromedial nucleus
What are the 3 nuclei found within the tuberal region of the medial zone of the hypothalamus?
Ventromedial
Dorsomedial
Arcuate
What is the function of the arcuate nucleus?
Production of releasing hormones that influence the anterior pituitary
What are the 4 nuclei found within the mammillary region of the medial zone of the hypothalamus?
Medial mammillary
Intermediate mammillary
Lateral mammillary
Posterior hypothalamic
What fibers terminate in the medial mammillary nucleus?
Axons of the postcommissural fornix
The medial mammillary nucleus projects to where?
***Anterior nucleus of thalamus
The lateral mammillary nucleus receives input from where and via what tract?
Reticular formation of midbrain, via mammillary peduncle
What are the functions of the mammillary nuclei?
Processing short-term memory into long-term memory
What are the manifestations of lesions affecting the mammillary bodies?
Memory deficits
What is the most common cause of lesions in the diencephalon?
Metabolic disturbances from alcoholism
What is Korsakoff psychosis?
When a patient attempts to compensate for short-term memory loss by using remembered events in its place
What are the main functions of the posterior hypothalamic nucleus?
Emotional, cardiovascular and analgesic
What is the function of the posterior hypothalamic nucleus?
Responding to lower blood temperatures
To where do the neurons of the periventricular zone project and via what tract?
Project to the hypophyseal portal system via the tuberoinfundibular tract
What is the function of the periventricular zone?
Secretion of releasing and inhibiting hormones that control secretions of the anterior pituitary
The neurons that produce GnRH arise from what embryonic structure?
Olfactory placode
What is the pathology behind the conditions seen in Kallman syndrome?
Defective development of the olfactory placode causes the absence of GnRH
What are the clinical presentations of Kallman syndrome?
Anosmia
Nonfunctional gonads
What is the only nucleus within the brain that contains histaminergic neurons?
Tuberomammillary nucleus
What neurotransmitters are released by the ventrolateral preoptic area?
GABA
Galanin
What is the function of the neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area?
Inhibition of the histaminergic nerones of the tuberomammillary nucleus
Inhibition of the cholinergic neurons of the reticular formation