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Pharmacology Ch. 5
Terms in this set (21)
-how a medicine changes the body.
-the branch of pharmacology concerned with the mechanisms of drug action and the relationships between drug concentration at the site of action and the resulting effects in the body.
frequency distribution curve
a graphical representation of the number of patients responding to a drug action at different doses.
-a way of understanding variability.
median effective dose (ED50)
dose in the middle of the frequency table. required to produce a specific therapeutic response in
-nurses must analyze other areas to see if this dose is effective.
median lethal dose (LD50)
determined in preclinical trials, as part of the drug development process.
-dose of drug that will be lethal
-cannot be experimentally determined in humans.
to examine the safety of a particular drug
the LD50 can be compared to the ED50.
-used to calculate a drugs therapeutic index.
LD50/ED50. median lethal dose/median effective dose.
-the higher the value, the greater the therapeutic index, the safer the drug.
-the smaller the value, the narrower the safety margin.
--need error 4 times dose to be lethal
median toxicity dose (TD50)
dose that will produce a given toxicity in 50% of a group of patients.
-based on adverse effects recorded in patients clinical trials.
-less than the median lethal dose since
the graphical representation is dose-response curve.
-different phases/patient response per dose.
-phase 1 occurs at the lowest dose.
-phase 2 shows a linear relationship between the amount of drug administered and the degree of response obtained from the patient.
-phase 3 maximum response, a plateau is reached in which increasing the drug produces no additional therapeutic response. increasing the dose further does not result in more of a therapeutic effect, but may produce toxic effects.
a drug that is more potent will produce a therapeutic effect at a lower dose.
-a method of comparing drugs.
-potency is one way to compare doses of two different drugs, in terms of how much is needed to produce a desired response.
magnitude of maximal response that can be produced from a particular drug.
a cellular macromolecule to which a medication binds
-a drug binds to a receptor to cause a change in body.
-they do not exist solely to bind drugs. normal function is to bind endogenous molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors.
-majority are proteins.
-small changes to the structure of the drug, or its receptor, may weaken or even eliminate binding between two molecules.
Examples of agents that ind wit intracellular components
steroid medications, vitamins, and hormones.
nonspecific cellular responses
actions such as changing the permeability of cellular membranes, depressing membrane excitability, or alter the activity of cellular pumps.
examples of agents that act by: ethyl alcohol, general anesthetics, and osmotic diuretics.
when a drug binds to its receptor it produces
a response that
the effect of the endogenous regulatory molecule.
a drug that produces the same type of response as the endogenous substance.
-sometimes produce a greater maximal response than the endogenous chemical.
partial agonist or agonist-antagonist drug
a medication that produces a weaker, or less efficacious, response than an agonist.
blocks half of the effect
a drug occupies a receptor and prevents the endogenous chemical from attacking.
-not all antagonism is associated with receptors.
inhibit the effects of an agonist not by competing with the receptor but by changing pharmacokinetic factors.
unpredictable and unexplained drug reactions.
the area of pharmacology that examines the role of heredity in drug response.
-the greatest advances have been the identification of the human genome and subtle genetic differences in drug metabolizing enzymes among patients.
deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or actual variants of the human genome.
-genetic differences in enzymes are responsible for a significant portion of drug induced toxicity.
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