47 terms

It's All Greece to Me...Unit One

STUDY
PLAY
Tyrant
A strong man who seized power by force and claimed to rule for the good of the people
Linear A
Minoan form of writing that as of yet we have been unsuccessful at decoding.
Direct Democracy
the type of governing system where all people vote directly on an issue
Logic
the process of making inferences
Hubris
great pride
Polis
a city-state of ancient Greece
Phalanx
a military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to carrying pikes or heavy spears
Democracy
a government run by the people
Hellenism
the blending of Greek cultures with those Persia, Egypt, and Central Asia following the conquests of Alexander the Great
Reason
clear and ordered thinking
Acropolis
a walled, high area at the center of the polis
Cleisthenes
Ancient Greek ruler often called the "father of democracy." He increased the size of the council that governed Athens to 500, and he reorganized Athenian tribes on a geographical rather than familial basis.
Pericles
a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He oversaw the construction of the Parthenon.
Socrates
Greek philosopher of Athens; his teaching style was based on asking question. He wanted people to question their own beliefs. He was arrested and condemned to death for challenging authority.
Aristotle
Greek philosopher and student of Plato; he taught that logic was the tool for any necessary inquiry; his work later became the basis for medieval scholasticism.
Alexander the Great
King of Macedon and conqueror of much of Asia; he is considered one of the greatest generals of all time
Solon
Athenian statesman; he introduced the first civil democracy in Greece and created the Boule
Euclid
Greek geometer; he created practical books on geometric forms and mathematics. His studies later formed the basis for European geometry.
Thucydides
Greek historian of Athens; he wrote the The History of the Pelopponesian War.
Agora
an open area that served as a meeting place and market in early Greek city-states
Archon
a chief of state of ancient Athens
Helots
in Ancient Greece, state slaves
Homer
Greek poet; he wrote the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey, which tell stories set during and after the Trojan War
Archimedes
Greek mathematician and inventor; he was known for his work in geometry, physics, and mechanics...worked to explain the use of levers to move objects as well as developed the block-and-tackle pulley system.
Plato
Greek philosopher; a student of Socrates, he started a school in Athens called the Academy
Eratosthenes
Greek astronomer and geographer; he calculated the circumference of the globe using careful observations and simple geometry
Hoplites
foot soldiers of ancient Greece
Lyric Poetry
type of poetry that gained its name from the lyre
Themistocles
Athenian General who advocated a strong Athenian navy, and in 483 BC he persuaded them to build a fleet of 200 triremes; these would prove crucial in the forthcoming conflict with Persia.
Herodotus
Greek historian; his most famous work is The Histories, which describes major events of the Persian Wars
Zeus
King of the Greek gods of Olympus
Sparta
Had the more militaristic values within its society.
Sparta
Gave women the most rights and freedoms.
Athens
Was the leader of the Delian League
Sparta
Was the leader of the Peloponnesian League.
Athens
Had a limited Democracy as its government
The main geographic reasons for the rise of city-states in ancient Greece
- Rocky, mountainous terrain
- Short rivers
- Scattered Islands

Both made travel difficult
Why the Greeks developed various different Gods
The Greeks were unable to explain various natural phenomena (i.e. lightning). They also sought purpose for anything else unexplained that happened in their lives.
Despite differences, all Greeks shared these things.
- the Greek Language
- they worshipped the same Gods
The Persian Wars were able to do something for Greece that had never been accomplished previously
they unified the city-states of Ancient Greece
The most lasting innovation of Ancient Athens
Athens was the Birthplace of Democracy, providing the origins of American government and most other governments in the modern Western World.
The unity created by the Persian Wars was short-lived, but another force would ultimately unify Greece permanently. What or who was it?
Phillip II & Alexander the Great
As Alexander conquered the known world, what did he do that likely left his most permanent mark on history?
He built cities, ports, libraries, etc. and spread Greek culture while blending it together with the cultures of other regions.
There were 2 major geographic barriers:
1. The terrain in Greece is mountainous and extremely rugged.
2. The rivers in Greece are short, and very difficult to navigate.
What major geographic barriers prevented Greece from being a unified nation?
Despite their differences, the Ancient Greeks all shared two things:
1. They spoke a common language
2. They believed in the same Gods.
What two things did all Greeks share despite their differences?
The last stand at Thermopylae is important to us because it protected Athens from complete destruction. At the time, Athens was just beginning to develop democracy and many other ideas that are the foundation of life in Western Civilization, especially in America. If the Spartans (and others) hadn't held off the Persians at Thermopylae, we might live in a very different world today.
What was the greatest importance of the last stand of the 300 Spartans? How does this affect us today?
Alexander the Great did not necessarily spread democracy, but as Alexander conquered most of the known world, he built cities everywhere he went. Within those cities and along the rest of the way, he spread Greek ideas about philosophy, art, architecture, science, etc by doing things such as building libraries. His exploits also led to the blending of other cultures with the western ideas of Greece.
Alexander the Great is not someone we would think of as a democratic figure, and yet we see him as someone who had a major role in influencing Western Civilization. Explain.