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Why do materials have to be dissolved in solution for it to be sensed

it allows fluid to run down sides of tongue papilla, where taste buds are located

what are the primary tastes?

sweet, sour, salty, bitter, unami (savory)

what nerves transmit the sense of smell to the brain?

olfactory nerves

what nerves transmit the sense of taste to the brain?

facial and glossopharyngeal

where are the taste buds located?

side of tongue papilla

what is the exact region of the nasal cavity that is sensitive to smell stimuli

olfactory epithelium

what is the adaptation of having taste buds that determine unpleasant bitter compounds in many plant species

adaptation because bitter tastes are associated with poisons.

some people with severe sinus infections can lose their sense of smell. How can an infection that spreads from the frontal or maxillary sinus impair sense of smell? what structure or structures might be affected?

smells spread from frontal lobe to two regions: limbic system and temporal lobe. Too much mucous.

material must be in solution for it to be tasted. what process would be used to precieve lipid-based food?

olfaction because it is a lipid

how does a cold influence our perception of taste?

cold influences taste because increased mucous

some smells that we percieve as two separate smells are actually identical. what other cues do we use to distinguish between these two smells.

visual cues

what visual mechanism causes red eye?

light reflecting off back of retina

since the lens is made of protein, what effect might the preserving fluid used in lab have on the structure of the lens? how might this affect clarity.

preserving fluid denatures lens and leads to defraction of light. makes lens cloudy.

what is the consensual reflex of the pupil?

when you shine light in the right eye, left will constrict too

what layer of the eye converts visible light into nerve impuses?


what nerve takes the impulse of sight to the brain?

optic nerve

what is another name of the sclera?

white of eye

how would you define an extrinsic muscle of the eye?

attached to sclera moves eye. 6 of them

what gland produces tears?

lacrimal gland

what is the name of the transparent layer of the eye in front of the anterior chamber?


the iris of the eye has what function

gives us eye color and size of pupil

what is the middle layer of the eye called?


is the lens posterior or anterior to the iris?


which retinal cells are responsible for vision in dim light?


how would you define the near point of the eye

minimum distance an obj. can comfortably be held in focus

what do the numbers 20/100 mean in visual activity?

you see 20 ft away what most people see at 100 ft

what is an astigmatism?

cornea/lens is not perfectly smooth

in what area of the eye is the blind spot located

optic disk

what are the three general regions of the ear?

external, middle, inner

the pinna of the ear consists fo two main parts?

helix, lobule

the ear is what kind of receptor?


the ear performs two major sensory functions. What are they?

hearing and balance

what structure separates the external ear from the middle ear?

tympanic membrane

name the three ear ossicles

malleus, incus, stapes

what is the function of the cochlea


what area is found between the scala vestibuli and scala tympani

scala media

what is the name of the nere that takes info about balance and hearing to the brain

vestibuloclear nerve

what units are used to measure sound energy?


what part of the inner ear is invovled in perceiving static balance?

vestibule- utricle and saccule

name the parts of the ear that might be impaired if a person demonstrates conduction deafness

inner ear and tympanic membrane

what is the name of the tube that runs from the auricle to the tympanic membrane

external acoustic meatus

the auditory tube connects what two cavities

nasopharnyx to tympanic cavity

what tube is responsible for equalization of pressure when you change elevation

auditory tube

what is the name of the space that encloses the ear ossicles

tympanic cavity

place the ear ossicles in order from tympanic membrane to oval window

malleus, incus, stapes

name all parts of the inner ear

cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals

background noise affects hearing tests. in the ticking watch test or audiometer test, what kind of results, in terms of auditory sensitivity would you have recorded if moderate background noise were present?

worse results, cant precieve sound clearly

in the weber test, the ear that perceives the sound as being louder is the deaf ear. why?

sound is louder in plugged ear b/c vibrations in the skull bone.

what is the general name for organs that produce hormones?

endocrine gland

what name is given to regions that are receptive to hormones?

target tissue

melatonin is secreted by what gland

pineal gland

in what specific part of what gland is ADH stored?

posterior pituitary

what is the effect of TSH and where is it produced

stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Anterior pituitary

what does glucagon do as a hormone, and where is it produced

regulate blood glucose levels in pancrease. it increases them by breaking down glycogen

which hormones in adrenal gland control water and electrolyte balance

corticosteroid hormones

what is the primary gland that secretes epinephrine

adrenal medulla

what is another name for T3


what connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland

medial isthmus

does parathormone increase or decrease calcium levels in blood


formed elements consist of three main components, what are they?

RBC, WBC, platelets

what is the common plasma protien?


what is another name for thrombocytes


which is the the most common blood cell


what white blood cell is most numerous in a normal blood smear?


how many red blood cells are normally found per cubic millimeter of blood

5 million

what is an average number of white blood cells found per cubic millimeter of blood?


B cells and T cells belong to what class of agranular leukocytes


what value is there to a change in percentage of white blood cells to diagnostic medicine?

change in number of WBC can indicate presence of a specific disease

in counting 100 WBC you are accuratly able to distinguish 15 basophils. is this a normal number of WBC count and what possible health implications can you draw from this?

no only .5-1 are normal an increase in basophils indicate an allergic reaction to radiation

what is the function of platelets?

they are involved in clotting and have fragments of megakcrocytes. used during extreme blood loss or people with blood thinning disorders

formed elements constitute what percentage of total blood volume.


in terms of volume, does the blood normally contain more plasma or more formed elements


what is the name of a surface membrane molecule on a blood cell that causes an immune reaction?


what ABO blood type is found in a person who is universal donor?


what is an average range of hematocrit for a normal female


what is the average range of hematocrit for a normal male?


what percentage of blood volume consists of formed elements


a person with blood type B has what kind of agglutinins (antibodies)

Anti- A

a person has antibody A and B in his or her blood with no Rh antibody. What blood type does this person have

blood type O-

a person with blood type B negative is injected with type A positive blood. from an immunologic standpoint what will happen after injection?

transfusion reaction

how might change in pipette technique alter the final determined value of RBC? what kind of errors might you expect?

human/experimental reactions

Define anemia

when blood is lost faster than replaced, or when RBC count is too low this occurs. Hemotcrit may drop below 15% or hemoglobin levels may be too low

explain the possible erroneous results that you might get if you used just one toothpick to stir various blood types in the ABO blood test?

antibodies from each dif. blood type might attack eachother and mixage would occur.

the heart is located between the lungs in an area known as the


what is the name of the layer that is superficial to the pericardial cavity

fibrous pericardium

what is the innermost layer of the heart wall called

serous pericardium

is the apex of the heart superior or inferior to the rest of the heart


what is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart

interventricular sulcus

are auricles extensions of the atria or the ventricles


what three vessels take blood to the right atrium

coronary sinus, superior/inferior caua

where do the great cardiac vein and the small cardiac vein take blood?

great = to coronary sinus
small = right atrium

what blood vessels nourish the heart tissue

coronary arteries

what structure separates the left atrium from the right atrium

bicuspid valve

what is the name of the thin spot between the atrium

interatrial septum

the bicuspid valve is located between the two chambers of the heart

left atrium and ventricle

name the structure between the atrioventricular valve and papillary muscle

chordae tendinae

what is the function of the aortic semilunar valve

perevents blood flow from aorta to LV

what is another name for the tricuspid valve

right atrioventricular valve

what cell type makes up most the myocardium

cardiac muslces/cardiocytes

what adaptation do you see in the walls of the left ventricle being thicker than those of the right ventricle

bigger b/c it pumps to rest of the body

how does cardiac muscles resemble skeletal muscle


in terms of function, how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle

cardiac muscle is involuntary and in heart and skeletal is voluntary and not in heart.

the sinoatrial node has a common name. what is it

pace maker

which two chambers of the heart contract last in a normal cardiac cycle


what two chambers are stimulated immediately after the SA node depolarizes


after the AV node depolarizes, what structures conduct the impulse to the myocardium of the ventricles

AV bundle, puskinsie fibers.

what are the main events recorded by an ECG

electrical activity of the heart

what electrical event in the heart does the QRS complex represent

ventricular depolarization

ventricular repolarization is represented by what part of an ECG

T wave

what ECG wave is represented by atrial depolarization

P wave

why is the ECG event indicating atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG

masked by larger QRS complex

what does a heart block do to impulse transmission in the heart

decreases it. atrium ventricles will depolarize independently

what consequence does fibrillation have for cardiac muslce contraction and for the pumping efficiency of the heart? which is more serious - atrial or ventricular fibrillation?

increased speed. ventricular b/c it goes to a whole body and atrial can do it itself.

in a myocardial infarct (heart attack) destroyed a portion of the right or left bundle branches, what potential change might you see in an ECG

increase time of QRS interval.

decreasing heart rate is under the control of what nervous division


what is the resting heart rate of an average perosn


are there more sodium ions inside or outside of a cardiac muscle cel during the resting membrane potential


what happens to sodium ions when a membrane depolarizes

they go in

what region in the heart depolarizes spontaneously

pace maker

what happens to the heart when an action potential is generated in the SA node

heart contracts

the movemnt of electrochemcial impulses in the myocardum is called _________ conduction


what effect do calcium slow channels have on shortening or lengething contraction time of the heart muslces

when they close a twitch in cardiac muscles happens. lengthening

beta adrenergic blockers bind to norepinephrine sites, preventing these neurotransmitters from having an effect. what effect would the use of beta blockers have on heart rate

decreases heart rate because blocks norepinephrine

what heat sound is produced by the closure of the atroiventricular valves in the heart


a heart murmur is normally caused by what event

imperfect closure of valves

when would a murmur occur in the lubb/dubb ccle if the AV valves were not closing properly

during closure of semi-circular canals

pilocarpine stiumlates release of acetelcholine from the vagus nerve, thereby increasing parasymphatetic stimulation. What impact would this drug have on heart rate

decreases it.

blood fom the left subclavion artery flows into what vessels as it moves toward the left arm

left axillary to left brachial

blood in the radial artery comes from what blood vessels

brachial artery

an aneurysm is a wakened, expanded portion of an artery. Ruptured anuerysms can lead to rapid blood loss. describe the significance of an aortic aneurysm vs. a digital artery aneurysm

digital artery aneurysms would be less severe becasue it is only in charge of sending blood to fingers. aortic aneurysiums lead to death

the pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. umbilical arteries carry a mixture of oxygeated and deoxygeneated blood. why are these blood vessels called arteries.

arteries go away from heart

what is the name of the outermost layer of blood vessles

tunica adventitia

what kind of blood vessel have valves


blood from the common carotid artery next travel to what two vessels

external/ internal carotid artery

blood from right brachial artery travels to what two vessles

radial/ulnar artery

where does blood in the right subclavian artery come from

brachicephalic artery

the internal carotid artery takes blood to what region


the descending aorta refcieves blood from what vessel

aortic arch

what is the general name of a large vessel that takes blood away from heart


blood in the left common carotid artery recieves blood form what vessel

aortic arch

name three blood vessels that exit aortic arch

brachiocephalic, L common carotid, L subclavion

how do the aortic arch arteries of a cat differ from those of a human

cat only has two large vessels that leave aortic arch. L subclavion, brachiocephalic.

name the section of the descending aorta inferior to the diaphram

abdominal aorta

blood fom the celiac artery flow into three different blood vessels. what are these vessels

splenic artery, left gastric artery, common hepatic artery

blood form the superior mesenteric artery takes blood to what major abdominal organs.

small intestine and proximal portion of large one

what vessels take blood to kidneys

renal arteries

the ovaries or testes recieve blood from which arteries

gonadal arteries

blood in the inferior mesenteric artery travels to what organs

lower portion of large intestine

in humans, where does blood in the external iliac artery come from

common iliac arteries

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