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Why do materials have to be dissolved in solution for it to be sensed
it allows fluid to run down sides of tongue papilla, where taste buds are located
what is the exact region of the nasal cavity that is sensitive to smell stimuli
what is the adaptation of having taste buds that determine unpleasant bitter compounds in many plant species
adaptation because bitter tastes are associated with poisons.
some people with severe sinus infections can lose their sense of smell. How can an infection that spreads from the frontal or maxillary sinus impair sense of smell? what structure or structures might be affected?
smells spread from frontal lobe to two regions: limbic system and temporal lobe. Too much mucous.
material must be in solution for it to be tasted. what process would be used to precieve lipid-based food?
olfaction because it is a lipid
some smells that we percieve as two separate smells are actually identical. what other cues do we use to distinguish between these two smells.
since the lens is made of protein, what effect might the preserving fluid used in lab have on the structure of the lens? how might this affect clarity.
preserving fluid denatures lens and leads to defraction of light. makes lens cloudy.
what is the consensual reflex of the pupil?
when you shine light in the right eye, left will constrict too
how would you define the near point of the eye
minimum distance an obj. can comfortably be held in focus
what do the numbers 20/100 mean in visual activity?
you see 20 ft away what most people see at 100 ft
what is the name of the nere that takes info about balance and hearing to the brain
name the parts of the ear that might be impaired if a person demonstrates conduction deafness
inner ear and tympanic membrane
what is the name of the tube that runs from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
external acoustic meatus
background noise affects hearing tests. in the ticking watch test or audiometer test, what kind of results, in terms of auditory sensitivity would you have recorded if moderate background noise were present?
worse results, cant precieve sound clearly
in the weber test, the ear that perceives the sound as being louder is the deaf ear. why?
sound is louder in plugged ear b/c vibrations in the skull bone.
what is the effect of TSH and where is it produced
stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Anterior pituitary
what does glucagon do as a hormone, and where is it produced
regulate blood glucose levels in pancrease. it increases them by breaking down glycogen
what value is there to a change in percentage of white blood cells to diagnostic medicine?
change in number of WBC can indicate presence of a specific disease
in counting 100 WBC you are accuratly able to distinguish 15 basophils. is this a normal number of WBC count and what possible health implications can you draw from this?
no only .5-1 are normal an increase in basophils indicate an allergic reaction to radiation
what is the function of platelets?
they are involved in clotting and have fragments of megakcrocytes. used during extreme blood loss or people with blood thinning disorders
what is the name of a surface membrane molecule on a blood cell that causes an immune reaction?
a person has antibody A and B in his or her blood with no Rh antibody. What blood type does this person have
blood type O-
a person with blood type B negative is injected with type A positive blood. from an immunologic standpoint what will happen after injection?
how might change in pipette technique alter the final determined value of RBC? what kind of errors might you expect?
when blood is lost faster than replaced, or when RBC count is too low this occurs. Hemotcrit may drop below 15% or hemoglobin levels may be too low
explain the possible erroneous results that you might get if you used just one toothpick to stir various blood types in the ABO blood test?
antibodies from each dif. blood type might attack eachother and mixage would occur.
what is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart
where do the great cardiac vein and the small cardiac vein take blood?
great = to coronary sinus
small = right atrium
what adaptation do you see in the walls of the left ventricle being thicker than those of the right ventricle
bigger b/c it pumps to rest of the body
in terms of function, how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle is involuntary and in heart and skeletal is voluntary and not in heart.
after the AV node depolarizes, what structures conduct the impulse to the myocardium of the ventricles
AV bundle, puskinsie fibers.
why is the ECG event indicating atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG
masked by larger QRS complex
what does a heart block do to impulse transmission in the heart
decreases it. atrium ventricles will depolarize independently
what consequence does fibrillation have for cardiac muslce contraction and for the pumping efficiency of the heart? which is more serious - atrial or ventricular fibrillation?
increased speed. ventricular b/c it goes to a whole body and atrial can do it itself.
in a myocardial infarct (heart attack) destroyed a portion of the right or left bundle branches, what potential change might you see in an ECG
increase time of QRS interval.
are there more sodium ions inside or outside of a cardiac muscle cel during the resting membrane potential
what effect do calcium slow channels have on shortening or lengething contraction time of the heart muslces
when they close a twitch in cardiac muscles happens. lengthening
beta adrenergic blockers bind to norepinephrine sites, preventing these neurotransmitters from having an effect. what effect would the use of beta blockers have on heart rate
decreases heart rate because blocks norepinephrine
when would a murmur occur in the lubb/dubb ccle if the AV valves were not closing properly
during closure of semi-circular canals
pilocarpine stiumlates release of acetelcholine from the vagus nerve, thereby increasing parasymphatetic stimulation. What impact would this drug have on heart rate
blood fom the left subclavion artery flows into what vessels as it moves toward the left arm
left axillary to left brachial
an aneurysm is a wakened, expanded portion of an artery. Ruptured anuerysms can lead to rapid blood loss. describe the significance of an aortic aneurysm vs. a digital artery aneurysm
digital artery aneurysms would be less severe becasue it is only in charge of sending blood to fingers. aortic aneurysiums lead to death
the pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. umbilical arteries carry a mixture of oxygeated and deoxygeneated blood. why are these blood vessels called arteries.
arteries go away from heart
blood from the common carotid artery next travel to what two vessels
external/ internal carotid artery
how do the aortic arch arteries of a cat differ from those of a human
cat only has two large vessels that leave aortic arch. L subclavion, brachiocephalic.
blood fom the celiac artery flow into three different blood vessels. what are these vessels
splenic artery, left gastric artery, common hepatic artery
blood form the superior mesenteric artery takes blood to what major abdominal organs.
small intestine and proximal portion of large one
what is arteriosclerosis
condition commonly known as hardening of arteries due to cholesterol plaque.
how do the lower pelvic arteries in humans differ from those of cats
cats - no common iliac in cats. in humans - split into external/internal iliac
what area do the right an dleft external jugular veins drain
superficial regions of the posterior head
what is the functional nature of a portal system and how does it differ from normal venous returnal flow
the veins that flow into liver before returning to heart are kown as hepatic portal system that take blood from abdonminal organs and transfer it to liver where metaboic processes occur
what major vessels take blood to the hepatic portal vein
superior/inferior mesenteric v, gastrosplenic v, other digestive veins, gastromental
blood in the small intestine travels to the hepatic portal vein by what vessel
superior mesneteric v
in the fetal heart, what is te name of the shunt between teh pulmonary trunk and aortic arch
what is the name of the vessels that carry lymph from the lymph capillaries to the veins
lymphatic vessels have one way flow from the extremeties to heart. damage to the lymphatic system can lead to edema, or an increase in tissue fluid. from a standpoint of reducing edema, how does the use fo medical leeches work for a region that has suffered trauma
leeches "eat" the fluid, reducing edema and removes debris and pathogens
from what you know of the functions of lymph nodes, predict the difference between lymph entering a node and lymph leaving a node, what materials may be missing form the lymph leaving the node
lymph leaving node would be missing foreign particles and debris.
the nasal cartilages are made of hyaline cartialge. what functional adaptation does cartilage have over bone in making up external framework of the nose
more flexible - holds nostrils open for breathing
three structures make u the nasal septum. what are they
vomer, perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, septal cartilage
what is the function of respiratory epithelum and the superfical blood vessels in the nasal cavity
"conditioning" warms/moistens external air before entering lungs
what is the name of the structure that prevents fluid from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing
the trachea branches into two tubes that go to the lungs, what are the tubes called
main (primary) bronchi
the surface area of the lungs in humans is about 70 sq meters. how can this be so if the lungs are located in the small space of thoracic cavity? what role do alveoli play in nature of surface area
type 1 pnemocytes make up 90& alveoli. they are composed of simple squameous epithelium. the small sacs increase surface area for gas exchange
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