Why do materials have to be dissolved in solution for it to be sensed
it allows fluid to run down sides of tongue papilla, where taste buds are located
what are the primary tastes?
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, unami (savory)
what nerves transmit the sense of smell to the brain?
what nerves transmit the sense of taste to the brain?
facial and glossopharyngeal
where are the taste buds located?
side of tongue papilla
what is the exact region of the nasal cavity that is sensitive to smell stimuli
what is the adaptation of having taste buds that determine unpleasant bitter compounds in many plant species
adaptation because bitter tastes are associated with poisons.
some people with severe sinus infections can lose their sense of smell. How can an infection that spreads from the frontal or maxillary sinus impair sense of smell? what structure or structures might be affected?
smells spread from frontal lobe to two regions: limbic system and temporal lobe. Too much mucous.
material must be in solution for it to be tasted. what process would be used to precieve lipid-based food?
olfaction because it is a lipid
how does a cold influence our perception of taste?
cold influences taste because increased mucous
some smells that we percieve as two separate smells are actually identical. what other cues do we use to distinguish between these two smells.
what visual mechanism causes red eye?
light reflecting off back of retina
since the lens is made of protein, what effect might the preserving fluid used in lab have on the structure of the lens? how might this affect clarity.
preserving fluid denatures lens and leads to defraction of light. makes lens cloudy.
what is the consensual reflex of the pupil?
when you shine light in the right eye, left will constrict too
what layer of the eye converts visible light into nerve impuses?
what nerve takes the impulse of sight to the brain?
what is another name of the sclera?
white of eye
how would you define an extrinsic muscle of the eye?
attached to sclera moves eye. 6 of them
what gland produces tears?
what is the name of the transparent layer of the eye in front of the anterior chamber?
the iris of the eye has what function
gives us eye color and size of pupil
what is the middle layer of the eye called?
is the lens posterior or anterior to the iris?
which retinal cells are responsible for vision in dim light?
how would you define the near point of the eye
minimum distance an obj. can comfortably be held in focus
what do the numbers 20/100 mean in visual activity?
you see 20 ft away what most people see at 100 ft
what is an astigmatism?
cornea/lens is not perfectly smooth
in what area of the eye is the blind spot located
what are the three general regions of the ear?
external, middle, inner
the pinna of the ear consists fo two main parts?
the ear is what kind of receptor?
the ear performs two major sensory functions. What are they?
hearing and balance
what structure separates the external ear from the middle ear?
name the three ear ossicles
malleus, incus, stapes
what is the function of the cochlea
what area is found between the scala vestibuli and scala tympani
what is the name of the nere that takes info about balance and hearing to the brain
what units are used to measure sound energy?
what part of the inner ear is invovled in perceiving static balance?
vestibule- utricle and saccule
name the parts of the ear that might be impaired if a person demonstrates conduction deafness
inner ear and tympanic membrane
what is the name of the tube that runs from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
external acoustic meatus
the auditory tube connects what two cavities
nasopharnyx to tympanic cavity
what tube is responsible for equalization of pressure when you change elevation
what is the name of the space that encloses the ear ossicles
place the ear ossicles in order from tympanic membrane to oval window
malleus, incus, stapes
name all parts of the inner ear
cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
background noise affects hearing tests. in the ticking watch test or audiometer test, what kind of results, in terms of auditory sensitivity would you have recorded if moderate background noise were present?
worse results, cant precieve sound clearly
in the weber test, the ear that perceives the sound as being louder is the deaf ear. why?
sound is louder in plugged ear b/c vibrations in the skull bone.
what is the general name for organs that produce hormones?
what name is given to regions that are receptive to hormones?
melatonin is secreted by what gland
in what specific part of what gland is ADH stored?
what is the effect of TSH and where is it produced
stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Anterior pituitary
what does glucagon do as a hormone, and where is it produced
regulate blood glucose levels in pancrease. it increases them by breaking down glycogen
which hormones in adrenal gland control water and electrolyte balance
what is the primary gland that secretes epinephrine
what is another name for T3
what connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland
does parathormone increase or decrease calcium levels in blood
formed elements consist of three main components, what are they?
RBC, WBC, platelets
what is the common plasma protien?
what is another name for thrombocytes
which is the the most common blood cell
what white blood cell is most numerous in a normal blood smear?
how many red blood cells are normally found per cubic millimeter of blood
what is an average number of white blood cells found per cubic millimeter of blood?
B cells and T cells belong to what class of agranular leukocytes
what value is there to a change in percentage of white blood cells to diagnostic medicine?
change in number of WBC can indicate presence of a specific disease
in counting 100 WBC you are accuratly able to distinguish 15 basophils. is this a normal number of WBC count and what possible health implications can you draw from this?
no only .5-1 are normal an increase in basophils indicate an allergic reaction to radiation
what is the function of platelets?
they are involved in clotting and have fragments of megakcrocytes. used during extreme blood loss or people with blood thinning disorders
formed elements constitute what percentage of total blood volume.
in terms of volume, does the blood normally contain more plasma or more formed elements
what is the name of a surface membrane molecule on a blood cell that causes an immune reaction?
what ABO blood type is found in a person who is universal donor?
what is an average range of hematocrit for a normal female
what is the average range of hematocrit for a normal male?
what percentage of blood volume consists of formed elements
a person with blood type B has what kind of agglutinins (antibodies)
a person has antibody A and B in his or her blood with no Rh antibody. What blood type does this person have
blood type O-
a person with blood type B negative is injected with type A positive blood. from an immunologic standpoint what will happen after injection?
how might change in pipette technique alter the final determined value of RBC? what kind of errors might you expect?
when blood is lost faster than replaced, or when RBC count is too low this occurs. Hemotcrit may drop below 15% or hemoglobin levels may be too low
explain the possible erroneous results that you might get if you used just one toothpick to stir various blood types in the ABO blood test?
antibodies from each dif. blood type might attack eachother and mixage would occur.
the heart is located between the lungs in an area known as the
what is the name of the layer that is superficial to the pericardial cavity
what is the innermost layer of the heart wall called
is the apex of the heart superior or inferior to the rest of the heart
what is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart
are auricles extensions of the atria or the ventricles
what three vessels take blood to the right atrium
coronary sinus, superior/inferior caua
where do the great cardiac vein and the small cardiac vein take blood?
great = to coronary sinus
small = right atrium
what blood vessels nourish the heart tissue
what structure separates the left atrium from the right atrium
what is the name of the thin spot between the atrium
the bicuspid valve is located between the two chambers of the heart
left atrium and ventricle
name the structure between the atrioventricular valve and papillary muscle
what is the function of the aortic semilunar valve
perevents blood flow from aorta to LV
what is another name for the tricuspid valve
right atrioventricular valve
what cell type makes up most the myocardium
what adaptation do you see in the walls of the left ventricle being thicker than those of the right ventricle
bigger b/c it pumps to rest of the body
how does cardiac muscles resemble skeletal muscle
in terms of function, how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle is involuntary and in heart and skeletal is voluntary and not in heart.
the sinoatrial node has a common name. what is it
which two chambers of the heart contract last in a normal cardiac cycle
what two chambers are stimulated immediately after the SA node depolarizes
after the AV node depolarizes, what structures conduct the impulse to the myocardium of the ventricles
AV bundle, puskinsie fibers.
what are the main events recorded by an ECG
electrical activity of the heart
what electrical event in the heart does the QRS complex represent
ventricular repolarization is represented by what part of an ECG
what ECG wave is represented by atrial depolarization
why is the ECG event indicating atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG
masked by larger QRS complex
what does a heart block do to impulse transmission in the heart
decreases it. atrium ventricles will depolarize independently
what consequence does fibrillation have for cardiac muslce contraction and for the pumping efficiency of the heart? which is more serious - atrial or ventricular fibrillation?
increased speed. ventricular b/c it goes to a whole body and atrial can do it itself.
in a myocardial infarct (heart attack) destroyed a portion of the right or left bundle branches, what potential change might you see in an ECG
increase time of QRS interval.
decreasing heart rate is under the control of what nervous division
what is the resting heart rate of an average perosn
are there more sodium ions inside or outside of a cardiac muscle cel during the resting membrane potential
what happens to sodium ions when a membrane depolarizes
they go in
what region in the heart depolarizes spontaneously
what happens to the heart when an action potential is generated in the SA node
the movemnt of electrochemcial impulses in the myocardum is called _________ conduction
what effect do calcium slow channels have on shortening or lengething contraction time of the heart muslces
when they close a twitch in cardiac muscles happens. lengthening
beta adrenergic blockers bind to norepinephrine sites, preventing these neurotransmitters from having an effect. what effect would the use of beta blockers have on heart rate
decreases heart rate because blocks norepinephrine
what heat sound is produced by the closure of the atroiventricular valves in the heart
a heart murmur is normally caused by what event
imperfect closure of valves
when would a murmur occur in the lubb/dubb ccle if the AV valves were not closing properly
during closure of semi-circular canals
pilocarpine stiumlates release of acetelcholine from the vagus nerve, thereby increasing parasymphatetic stimulation. What impact would this drug have on heart rate
blood fom the left subclavion artery flows into what vessels as it moves toward the left arm
left axillary to left brachial
blood in the radial artery comes from what blood vessels
an aneurysm is a wakened, expanded portion of an artery. Ruptured anuerysms can lead to rapid blood loss. describe the significance of an aortic aneurysm vs. a digital artery aneurysm
digital artery aneurysms would be less severe becasue it is only in charge of sending blood to fingers. aortic aneurysiums lead to death
the pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. umbilical arteries carry a mixture of oxygeated and deoxygeneated blood. why are these blood vessels called arteries.
arteries go away from heart
what is the name of the outermost layer of blood vessles
what kind of blood vessel have valves
blood from the common carotid artery next travel to what two vessels
external/ internal carotid artery
blood from right brachial artery travels to what two vessles
where does blood in the right subclavian artery come from
the internal carotid artery takes blood to what region
the descending aorta refcieves blood from what vessel
what is the general name of a large vessel that takes blood away from heart
blood in the left common carotid artery recieves blood form what vessel
name three blood vessels that exit aortic arch
brachiocephalic, L common carotid, L subclavion
how do the aortic arch arteries of a cat differ from those of a human
cat only has two large vessels that leave aortic arch. L subclavion, brachiocephalic.
name the section of the descending aorta inferior to the diaphram
blood fom the celiac artery flow into three different blood vessels. what are these vessels
splenic artery, left gastric artery, common hepatic artery
blood form the superior mesenteric artery takes blood to what major abdominal organs.
small intestine and proximal portion of large one
what vessels take blood to kidneys
the ovaries or testes recieve blood from which arteries
blood in the inferior mesenteric artery travels to what organs
lower portion of large intestine
in humans, where does blood in the external iliac artery come from
common iliac arteries
what artery takes blood directly to femoral artery
external iliac arteria
blood from popliteal artery comes directly from what artery
what is arteriosclerosis
condition commonly known as hardening of arteries due to cholesterol plaque.
in what part of the arterial wall does cholestrol plaque develop
what is the vessel that takes blood to the adrenal glands in a cat called
how do the lower pelvic arteries in humans differ from those of cats
cats - no common iliac in cats. in humans - split into external/internal iliac
which veins have names that do not correlate to arteries
the internal jugular vein takes blood from what area
what veins pass through the transverse vertebral foramina
what area do the right an dleft external jugular veins drain
superficial regions of the posterior head
the brachiocephalic veins take blood to what vessles
superior vena cava
is the radial vein a superficial or deep vein
where is the median cubital vein found
crosses anterior cubital fossa
what vessl recieves blood from ulnar vein
what region of the body houses cephalic vein?
lateral side of forearm/arm
blood from the right axillary vein next travels to what vessel?
right subclavian v
what vessel take blood to the left femoral vein
greater saphenous v
the great saphenous v is in what region of body
where does blood flow after it leaves femoral vein
external iliac v
the common iliac v recieves blood from tow vessels, what two vessels
external/internal iliac v.
what is the functional nature of a portal system and how does it differ from normal venous returnal flow
the veins that flow into liver before returning to heart are kown as hepatic portal system that take blood from abdonminal organs and transfer it to liver where metaboic processes occur
what major vessels take blood to the hepatic portal vein
superior/inferior mesenteric v, gastrosplenic v, other digestive veins, gastromental
blood in the small intestine travels to the hepatic portal vein by what vessel
superior mesneteric v
in the fetal heart, what is te name of the shunt between teh pulmonary trunk and aortic arch
name the opening between the atria in the fetal heart
what cell type makes up endothelium of capillaries
simple squamus epithielium
what is the name of the vessels that carry lymph from the lymph capillaries to the veins
once tissue fluid enters the lymphatic vessels, what is it called
what is the name of the inner region of a lymph node
what kind of vessel takes lymph away from a lymph node
effernet lymphatic vessels
the adenoids are enlarged
which tonsils are found on the side of hte oral cavity
what tonsils sare located on the back of the tongue
blood is filtered by which lymph organ in the adult
what part of the spleen is involved in producing lymphocytes
where do t cells mature
lymphatic vessels have one way flow from the extremeties to heart. damage to the lymphatic system can lead to edema, or an increase in tissue fluid. from a standpoint of reducing edema, how does the use fo medical leeches work for a region that has suffered trauma
leeches "eat" the fluid, reducing edema and removes debris and pathogens
from what you know of the functions of lymph nodes, predict the difference between lymph entering a node and lymph leaving a node, what materials may be missing form the lymph leaving the node
lymph leaving node would be missing foreign particles and debris.
elephatiasis is a disease that is caused by a parasitic worm blocking
what is the common name for the external nares
the nasal cartilages are made of hyaline cartialge. what functional adaptation does cartilage have over bone in making up external framework of the nose
more flexible - holds nostrils open for breathing
the nasal cavities are separated from each other by what structure
three structures make u the nasal septum. what are they
vomer, perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, septal cartilage
what is the function of respiratory epithelum and the superfical blood vessels in the nasal cavity
"conditioning" warms/moistens external air before entering lungs
name the openings between the nasal cavity and pharynx
internal nares or choanae
waht is the name fo the space behind the oral cavity and above laryngopharynx
what is the name of the structure that prevents fluid from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing
what is the name of the large cartilage of the anterior larynx
what is the structure that protects glottis from fluid entering the larynx
which lung has just two lobes in the human
what membrane attaches directly to the lungs
the trachea branches into two tubes that go to the lungs, what are the tubes called
main (primary) bronchi
where is the trachobronchial tree located
what small structure in the lung is the site of oxygen exchange with blood capillaries
the surface area of the lungs in humans is about 70 sq meters. how can this be so if the lungs are located in the small space of thoracic cavity? what role do alveoli play in nature of surface area
type 1 pnemocytes make up 90& alveoli. they are composed of simple squameous epithelium. the small sacs increase surface area for gas exchange
emphysema is a destruction of the alveoli of the lungs. what effect does this have on the surface area of lungs
decreases it. minimizing gas exchange and blood gas barrier
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