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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
chapter 1 & 2
Terms in this set (49)
Acts or feelings against Jews; takes the form of prejudice, dislike, fear, discrimination, and persecution.
A term used by the Nazis to mean a superior race of Nordic-type white people who were the "master race." The Nazis applied the term primarily to people of Northern European racial background. It is not a racial term, but the name of a family of language, the Indo-European languages, which include German, English, and Greek.
Largest and most notorious of all the concentration camps; was both a slave labor camp and a death camp. Established in 1940 as a concentration camp, it became a death camp in early 1942. Eventually it consisted of three sections: Auschwitz I, the main camp; Auschwitz II, also known as Birkenau, a death camp; and Auschwitz II, the I. G. Farben labor camp, also known as Buna.
The act of holding a group responsible for the actions of any of its individual members.
Work units that performed tasks inside and outside a concentration camp. An inside unit might have five prisoners while an outside unit contained 200 to 300 laborers. Outside jobs included road building, demolishing bombarded houses, digging stumps, cultivating fields, carrying ties and rails for railroad construction, all without the help of machinery.
Prison camps established beginning in 1933 soon after the Nazis assumed power. The Nazis sent people considered by them to be "enemies of the state" to these camps. These groups included communists and other political opponents, Jehovah's Witnesses, Roma (Gypsies), homosexuals. The first three concentration camps established were Dachau near Munich, Buchenwald near Weimar and Sachsenhausen near Berlin, all in Germany.
A large oven or furnace where bodies of death camp inmates were burned after the victims were gassed or died from other causes in the camp.
A camp whose basic purpose was to kill Jews and others. Gas chambers were built especially for that use. There were six death camps, all in occupied Poland: Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Maidanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
Forced marches under brutal conditions required of death camp and concentration camp inmates by the Nazis to avoid liberation by advancing Allied forces.
Forced removal of Jews in Nazi-occupied lands from their homes under pretense of resettlement. Most were shipped to death camps.
Displaced Persons (DP) Camp:
Camps set up after World War II by the Allies to house Holocaust survivors and other refugees who had no place to go home to. A temporary arrangement until the DPs could immigrate or return to their native lands.
Specially trained killing squads who had as their mission to seek out and kill Jews, Roma, and communists. These mobile killing units consisted of Special Action squads of the SS and Security Police. Their victims were executed by shooting and were buried in mass graves. Most were later dug up and burned.
The Nazi team for their plan to exterminate all European Jews. The full name was "The Final Solution of the Jewish Question." Beginning in 124 December 1941, Jews were rounded up and sent to death camps in Poland. The program was disguised as "resettlement in the East."
Title taken by Hitler; German word for leader.
A room that was sealed off and airtight so that death could be induced through the use of poison gas.
Term created after World War II to describe the deliberate and systematic murder of an entire political, cultural, or religious group. The Nazis used the phrases "Final Solution," "special treatment," and "resettlement" as euphemisms for genocide.
The secret state police organization in Nazi Germany; formed in April 1933 and created to eliminate political opposition. Terror, arrest, and torture were the main methods used. and the Gestapo was not accountable to any other civil authority.
An area of a city in which all Jews from surrounding areas were forced to live until they were transported to a concentration or death camp. Surrounded by barbed wire or walls, the ghettos were often sealed so that people were prevented from leaving or entering. They were overcrowded and disease-ridden, and their occupants suffered from malnutrition. All the ghettos were eventually destroyed as the Jews were deported to death camps. The first major ghetto was created in the city of Lodz in western Poland in April 1940. Other major ghettos were in eastern Europe in such cities as Warsaw, Vilna, Riga, and Minsk.
The systematic, planned extermination of six million European Jews by the Nazis during World War II. Many non-Jews perished in the Holocaust, but only the Jews were marked for complete annihilation. The word is derived from the Greek term meaning "burnt whole."
A council of Jewish representatives in communities and ghettos set up by the Nazis to represent Jewish interests and carry out Nazi instructions.
A German word meaning "cleansed of Jews," denoting areas where all Jews had been either murdered or deported.
Prisoner in charge of a group of inmates in a Nazi concentration camp. Kapos were appointed by the SS as labor foremen over the prisoners. The word probably is derived from the Italian capo or boss. The kapo was often recruited from among known German criminals. In return for supervising workers at hard labor, he or she received special privileges
German term for "Night of Broken Glass," which took place in Germany and Austria on November 9 and 10, 1938. Nazi police smashed Jewish synagogues, houses, and shops. At the same time, around 35,000 Jewish men were sent to concentration camps. The "excuse" for this action was the assassination of a minor German official in Paris by a Jewish teenager whose parents had been rounded up by Nazis. This event signaled the beginning of the Nazi effort to exterminate the Jewish people.
A prison camp where the prisoners were used to slave labor for German industry and the production of war materiel. Liberated: Set free. Liberators: Allied soldiers who freed the inmates of concentration camps.
Hitler's autobiography with the English title My Struggle. Written in 1923 while Hitler was in prison for his part in the unsuccessful 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, the book, published in 1925, contains all of Hitler's political theories including his plans for the future of Germany and his intention to create "living space" in the East for 125 the superior Aryan race. Sometimes referred to as the Bible of the Nazi party.
Germans of mixed Jewish and Christian ancestry who faced antiSemitic discrimination under the Nuremberg Laws if they had one or more Jewish grandparents.
Concentration camp slang for a prisoner near death from starvation and privation who had given up fighting for life.
Name used to identify member of the National Socialist German Workers Party, a German fascist political movement which ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945 under Adolph Hitler.
Parties or groups who accept the racist, anti-Semitic political ideas of Adolf Hitler. White supremacy and a hatred of blacks are other key beliefs. Neo-Nazi skinheads can be found in Europe and the United States.
In 1935, Hitler established anti-Semitism as part of Germany's legal code through these laws. Laws excluded Jews from German society, deprived them of their citizenship, removed them from jobs, and expelled them from schools and universities.
A military tribunal set up by the United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union, which met in Nuremberg, Germany, from November 1945 to October 1946 to try high-ranking former Nazi leaders.
A member of a guerrilla band operating within enemy territory. During World War II, this term was applied to resistance fighters in Nazi-occupied countries. Pogrom: A brief, planned surprise attack against a Jewish community.
An opinion formed before the facts are known. In most cases, these opinions are founded on suspicions, ignorance, and the irrational hatred of other races, religions, or nationalities.
One of the two houses of the German legislature or parliament.
The money and goods paid by German legislature or parliament.
Acts of rebellion of sabotage committed by individuals and groups within the camps and ghettos.
Righteous Among the Nations / Righteous Gentiles:
Non-Jews honored at Yad Vashem in Israel for risking their lives to save a Jewish person from Nazi persecution during the Holocaust.
Abbreviation for Sturmabteilung, the storm troopers of the early Nazi party, organized in 1921.
Abbreviation for Schutzstaffel, or protection squads. Members of Hitler's elite force of German storm troopers. Responsible for carrying out Hitler's Final Solution. Controlled the concentration and death camps under the direction of Heinrich Himmler.
A person or group that bears the blame for the mistakes or crimes of others. Hitler blamed Jews for Germany's defeat in World War I and its post-war troubles.
The sorting of prisoners in a death camp into two groups, those judged able to work and those who were to be killed. At Auschwitz selection often occurred when a transport arrived. Those considered unable to work, especially children, the elderly, and women with small children were taken directly to the gas chambers. In the 126 ghettos, selections were also used to choose Jews for deportation.
Originally a Biblical term meaning "widespread disaster." It is the modern Hebrew equivalent of the term Holocaust. Survivor: Person who survived Nazi persecution from 1933 to 1945.
Symbol of the Nazi party adopted in 1920. An ancient symbol dating back about six thousand years, it is now banned in Germany.
Jewish house of worship.
The German word reich means empire. The Nazis called their government the Third Empire. The first was the Holy Roman Empire and the second was the German Empire of the 19th century.
A German word meaning "collection point." It was a square in the Warsaw Ghetto where Jews were rounded up for deportation to Treblinka.
A group organized in strict secrecy among citizens in an occupied country for maintaining communications and initiating activity that will lead to the removal of the occupier.
The six-pointed Star of David made of yellow cloth and sewn to the clothing of European Jews to permit easy identification.
The nationalistic movement of Jewish people working for the establishment of the Jewish state in what is now the modern state of Israel.
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