1. What is the key question behind civil rights protection?
a. What limits are placed on the government's power over individuals?
b. What is the proper meaning of equality?
c. What is the appropriate role of the federal government?
d. How has the expansion of the bureaucracy affected democracy?
2. When did civil rights become part of the U.S. Constitution?
a. Civil rights have always been part of the Constitution.
b. Civil rights were included in the Bill of Rights.
c. Civil rights were incorporated with the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
d. Civil rights were incorporated when Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of
3. Most of the government's positive actions associated with the civil rights issue in the United States stem
from the application of
a. the civil rights clause of Article VI of the U.S. Constitution.
b. the commerce clause of Article I of the U.S. Constitution.
c. the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
d. the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S.
4. Which of the following cases helped lead to the Civil War?
a. Marbury v. Madison
b. Dred Scott v. Sandford
c. Plessy v. Ferguson
d. Brown v. Board of Education
5. What goal did members of the abolitionist movement pursue?
a. the end of slavery
b. the overthrow of the U.S. Constitution
c. the removal of all tariffs on slave-produced goods
d. the removal of all nonwhites from U.S. territory
6. Which statement about the Reconstruction era is false?
a. African Americans held many political offices in the South.
b. Many areas of the southern states were occupied by federal troops.
c. The Constitution was amended three times.
d. African American voters supported the Democratic Party
7. What does the term Jim Crow refer to?
a. northern whites who sympathized with African Americans
b. the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century
c. the system of racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction
d. African American politicians during Reconstruction
8. Which amendments to the U.S. Constitution seemed to offer African Americans the most hope for
achieving full citizenship rights in the United States?
a. the First, Second, and Third amendments
b. the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh amendments
c. the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments
d. the Twentieth, Twenty-first, and Twenty-second amendments
9. What was the Supreme Court's response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875?
a. It declared the act constitutional.
b. It declared the act unconstitutional because it protected against acts of private
discrimination, not state discrimination.
c. It declared the act unconstitutional because Congress had violated the principles
d. The Supreme Court never heard a case concerning the constitutionality of this act
10. The Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson
a. established the separate but equal rule.
b. upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
c. declared that segregation by race was unconstitutional.
d. ruled that the equal protection clause did not cover private acts of discrimination
11. During World War II, __________ forced the federal government to address discriminatory hiring
practices by threatening massive labor marches on Washington, D.C.
a. Thurgood Marshall
b. A. Philip Randolph
c. Martin Luther King, Jr.
d. Harry Truman
12. What best explains the increased attention the federal government paid to the problem of racial
discrimination during the 1940s?
a. The NAACP had successfully lobbied members of Congress for better federal
legislation against disfranchisement.
b. Northern migration of African Americans increased their voting strength.
c. In a 1942 decision, the Supreme Court required desegregation in the armed
d. The fight against the Nazis challenged the assumptions of white supremacy
13. In 1890, __________ became the first state to allow women to vote.
d. No state allowed women to vote until the federal Constitution was amended
14. A 1948 report on the problem of racial discrimination, To Secure These Rights, was issued by
b. the NAACP.
c. the White House.
d. the Southern Conference of Governors
15. Women were guaranteed the right to vote with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, which was
16. What was the Supreme Court's ruling in Shelley v. Kraemer?
a. Racially restrictive covenants on housing could not be enforced by courts.
b. Universities and professional schools had to desegregate.
c. Public universities were required to admit women, but private colleges could still
segregate on the basis of gender.
d. Busing in order to integrate public schools was unconstitutional
17. "Strict scrutiny" is the level of judicial review the federal courts give to all cases that involve
a. racial classifications.
b. gender classifications.
c. age classifications.
d. all of the above.
18. In their response to Brown v. Board of Education, southern states did all of the following except
a. pass laws requiring schools to remain segregated.
b. centralize school boards to prevent local districts from obeying the Supreme
c. protest the constitutionality of the Court's decision.
d. quickly desegregate their schools
19. What is the name for school segregation that results from racially divided neighborhoods rather than state
a. de facto
b. de jure
c. stare decisis
d. ex post facto
20. Why did President Dwight Eisenhower deploy federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957?
a. There were massive race riots as a result of the order to desegregate the schools.
b. The governor of Arkansas requested that the state's National Guard help resist
c. The Ku Klux Klan was making terrorist threats against state officials if the local
school district tried to integrate.
d. It was feared that communists had infiltrated the local government.
21. In __________, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
22. Ten years after Brown v. Board of Education, __________ percent of black children in the Deep South
attended school with white children.
23. The first federal civil rights law passed by Congress since 1875 came in what year?
24. Which area was not covered by the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
b. public accommodations
c. school desegregation
d. poll taxes
25. In the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Congress vastly expanded the role of the executive branch and the
credibility of court orders by
a. mandating that the southern states racially gerrymander their legislative districts
to ensure that more African Americans were elected to Congress.
b. creating the strict scrutiny test.
c. creating a Department of Civil Rights.
d. requiring that federal grants-in-aid to state and local governments for education
be withheld from any school system practicing racial segregation.
26. One step taken toward the desegregation of public schools was
a. busing children from poor urban school districts to wealthier suburban ones.
b. the outlawing of all forms of de facto segregation.
c. the opening of numerous private schools and academies.
d. All of the above steps were taken.
27. In __________, the Supreme Court permitted busing children as a way of bringing about desegregation
28. Which city was the setting for a major racial confrontation concerning school busing?
29. Which of the following best describes the federal courts' trend toward school desegregation since the
a. The courts increased the federal supervision of local school desegregation.
b. The courts decreased the federal supervision of local school desegregation.
c. Federal courts continued the active use of busing.
d. Federal courts ordered the withdrawal of federal education funds from school
districts that do not combat de facto desegregation.
30. Desegregating schools in the northern states proved to be very difficult because
a. very few minorities lived in the North.
b. segregation in the North was generally de facto, the product of both segregated
housing and acts of private discrimination that were hard to prove.
c. discrimination in the South was so visible and pervasive that little attention was
given to other parts of the country.
d. there was less hostility toward segregation in the North
31. In a case of workplace discrimination, which government institution would most likely handle the
a. the Supreme Court
c. the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
d. the Department of Commerce
32. What does the term redlining refer to?
a. the practice of banks refusing to make loans to people living in certain
b. the practice of drawing districts that are biased against minority groups
c. denying someone the right to vote by drawing a red line across a citizen's name in
the voter registry
d. the practice of denying someone rights by labeling him or her a communist
33. Which of the following civil rights bills has had the least effect in changing patterns of discrimination?
a. Civil Rights Act of 1964
b. Voting Rights Act of 1965
c. Fair Housing Act of 1968
d. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
34. It was during the tenure of Chief Justice __________ that the Supreme Court established gender
discrimination as a highly visible area of civil rights law.
35. The attempt to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment was an important political struggle for
a. African Americans.
b. Native Americans.
d. gays and lesbians
36. Title IX of the 1972 Education Act has had its greatest effect on
a. college recruiting.
b. university athletic programs.
c. school busing.
d. religious freedom on campus
37. Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail to pass?
a. It did not win approval by both houses of Congress.
b. It was not ratified by the necessary thirty-eight states.
c. The Supreme Court had declared the amendment unconstitutionally vague before
it could be submitted to the states.
d. It was vetoed by President Gerald Ford
38. The Supreme Court case Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) is important because it
a. asserted that monetary damages could not be awarded for acts of gender
discrimination in education.
b. permitted public schools to experiment with gender segregation.
c. required states to fund schools on Indian reservations at the same levels as all
other public schools.
d. narrowed the free speech rights that students enjoyed at school
39. Under what conditions can a plaintiff successfully bring a sexual harassment charge?
a. only if the plaintiff can prove both economic and psychological harm
b. only if the plaintiff can prove either economic or psychological harm
c. the plaintiff need prove neither economic nor psychological harm
d. only quid pro quo forms of harassment may be brought into court
40. Which of the following is not the name of a Latino civil rights organization?
a. G.I. Forum
41. Which group was excluded from immigrating to the United States from the late nineteenth century until
42. What was the purpose of California's Proposition 187?
a. It barred unauthorized immigrants from voting.
b. It barred unauthorized immigrants from receiving most public services.
c. It barred unauthorized immigrants from ever receiving green cards.
d. It attempted to limit unauthorized immigration at the border through the use of
43. The civil rights of Latinos and Asian Americans were assisted by the Supreme Court's ruling that
a. school districts are required to provide bilingual education to
b. school districts must provide instruction that students can understand.
c. bilingual ballots must be provided in several different languages.
d. literacy tests are unconstitutional.
44. A major civil rights concern for Latinos and Asian Americans is
a. the extension of voting rights to include their groups.
b. the abolishment of literacy tests.
c. the treatment of legal and unauthorized immigrants.
d. that they be granted full citizenship.
45. What happened to California's Proposition 187?
a. A federal court declared it constitutional.
b. A federal court declared most of it a violation of the U.S. Constitution.
c. It was ruled a violation of the state constitution, but not the U.S. Constitution.
d. There was never a court challenge to its legality.
46. The rights of disabled individuals to both access public businesses and not be discriminated against in
employment are guaranteed by
a. the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
b. the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
c. the amended Civil Rights Act of 1991
d. the federal courts, not laws passed by Congress.
47. What did the Supreme Court rule in Bowers v. Hardwick?
a. There was a constitutional right to privacy for consensual homosexual activity.
b. There was no constitutional right to privacy for consensual homosexual activity.
c. The Court extended civil rights protection to gays and lesbians as a class.
d. The Court legalized gay marriages.
48. In Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court
a. upheld a state law banning private homosexual activity.
b. granted gays and lesbians status under the equal protection clause.
c. struck down a state law criminalizing homosexual conduct.
d. denied that homosexuals were a protected class under the Fourteenth Amendment.
49. Who inaugurated government affirmative action programs?
a. Franklin Roosevelt
b. Dwight Eisenhower
c. Lyndon Johnson
d. Richard Nixon
50. Affirmative action in the United States involves
a. compensatory action to overcome the consequences of past discrimination.
b. mandatory strict hiring quotas, established by the Department of Labor, for all
federal agencies and programs.
c. initiating lawsuits against the U.S. government for its past discriminatory
d. all of the above.