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a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 470)


a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 470)

drive- reduction theory

theory proposing that certain drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexual frustration motivate us to act in ways that minimize aversive states


the maintenance of stable internal conditions


a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 471)

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 472)


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 475)

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 476)

basal metabolic rate

, the body's resting rate of energy expenditure. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 476)

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 478)

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 478)

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 481)

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 482)

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 482)


a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 482)


the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 482)

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation). (Myers Psychology 8e p. 487)


a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 498)

industrial- organizational psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

personnel psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 499)

organizational psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 499)

structured interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 502)

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment:for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 504)

task leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 508)

social leadership

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 508)

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