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91 terms

A & P Review 1

STUDY
PLAY
Which word is derived from the Greek word meaning "cutting up"?
Anatomy
Which word is defined as the scientific study of disease?
Pathalogy
Which word is defined as the study of the function of living organisms and their parts?
Physiology
Cells are?
the smallest living units of structure and function in the body.
A group of cells that act together to perform a function is called a(n)?
Tissue
The heart is an example of a(n)?
Organ
The levels of organization from most simple to most complex are?
Chemical--Cell--Tissue--Organ--System
When using directional terms to describe the body, it is assumed that the body is in what position?
Anatomical
The supine position?
Describes the body lying face up
The prone position?
Describes the body lying face down
Because humans walk upright, the term "dorsal" can be used in place of the term?
Posterior
The opposite term for posterior in humans is?
Both b and c (anterior, ventral)
The opposite term for superficial is?
Deep
The body section that divides the right ear from the left ear is a ________ section.
sagittal
The body section that divides the nose from the back of the head is a_________ section.
frontal
A section that divides the body into mirror images is a_________ section.
midsagittal
The two major body cavities are called?
dorsal and ventral
The liver can be found in the?
both a and b (upper right quadrant, epigastric region)
The word "leg" correctly describes the?
area from the knee to the ankle
The human body tries to maintain a constant body temperature. This is an example of?
homeostasis
The part of a feedback loop that has the direct effect on the regulated condition is called?
the effector
The part of the feedback loop that detects a change in the regulated condition is called?
sensor
The part of the feedback loop that compares the present condition to the homeostatic condition the body is trying to maintain is called?
the control center
When your body temperature drops below normal, your muscles begin to contract rapidly, making you shiver and generating heat. In this case your muscles are acting as the?
effector
Which of the following body functions is an example of a positive feedback loop?
both b and c (forming a blood clot, ulterine contractions during labor)
The level of organization directly below the organ level is the________ level.
tissue
Which term means "toward the head"?
superior
Which describes the anatomical relationship of the wrist to the elbow?
The elbow is proximal to the wrist
A coronal plane or section is another term for a____ plane.
frontal
The muscular sheet called the diaphragm divides the?
thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavities
Which is not part of the upper abdominopelvic region?
hypogastric region
Which subatomic particle has a positive charge?
Proton
Which subatomic particle has no charge?
Neutron
Which subatomic particle has a negative charge?
Electron
Which subatomic particle is found in the nucleus?
both a and b (proton, neutron)
Electrons are found?
both b and c (in orbitals, at various distances from the nucleus called energy levels
The atomic number of an atom is the number of?
Protons
The atomic mass of an atom is the number of?
both a and b (protons, neutrons)
The subatomic particle that determines how an atom unites with other atoms is the?
Electron
An atom that contains 20 protons, 21 neutrons, and 20 electrons has an atomic number of?
20
An atom that contains 20 protons, 21 neutrons, and 20 electrons has an atomic mass of?
41
An atom that contains 20 protons, 21 nuetrons, and 20 electons has?
no charge (electrically neutral)
Which of these elements is not one of the four elements that make up most of the human body?
Calcium
Bonds that usually dissociate in water to form electrolytes are___ bonds.
ionic
The bonds formed when electrons are shared are called?
covalent bonds
The process of dehydration synthesis
converts smaller molecules into larger ones by removing water
The process of hydrolysis
uses water to turn large molecules into smaller ones
Acids have
both a and b (a pH less than 7, more H+ ions than OH- ions
Bases have
a pH greater than 7
Which of the following is an example of a monosaccharide?
glucose
Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?
glycogen
Triglycerides
have three fatty acids
Phospholipids
contain two fatty acids
Cholesterol
is a steroid lipid
Which of the following is a structural protein?
both a and b (collagen, keratin)
Which of the following is a functional protein?
enzymes
Which of the following substances is not found in a DNA nucleotide?
glycerol molecule
Which substance is found only in DNA?
thymine
Which type of chemical bond does not result in the formation of a new monecule?
hydrogen bond
Which of the following is not part of the cell?
interstitial fluid
Which of the following is not part of the plasma membrane?
triglycerides
Which of the following is not a function of the cell membrane?
protein synthesis
Tissue typing uses information
found on the cell membrane
Which organelles can be called the "digestive bags" of the cell?
lysosomes
break
What are the protein factories of the cell?
ribosomes
Which are small fingerlike projections on the plasma membrane that increases the cell's ability to absorb substances?
microvilli
Which of the folowing are called the "power plants" of the cell?
mitochondria
Which are rod-shaped structures that are important in cell division?
centrioles
Which structure has ribosomes attached to it and helps transport proteins throughout the cell?
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Which organelle consists of tiny flattened sacs that help process and package chemicals in the cell?
Golgi apparatus
Which are extremely fine hairlike structures on the surface of the cell?
cilia
Only about half the population has which of the following organelles?
flagella
What is the process by which substances scatter themselves evenly throughout an available space?
diffusion
What is the movement of water from an area of higher concentration through a selectively permeable membrane?
osmosis
What is the movement of water and solutes through a membrane because of hydrostatic pressure?
filtration
Because of specific base pairing, if one side of the DNA molecule has the nucleotide sequence of adenine - guanine - adenine - cytosine - thymine, the other side would be
thymine- cytosine - thymine - guanine- adenine
If the DNA code is adenine- thymine- guanine, the messanger RNA sequence would be
thymine- uracil- cytosine
If the messenger RNA code is adenine- uracil- cytosine, the transfer RNA bringing the amino acid would have which code?
uracil- adenine- guanine
DNA replication occurs during which phase?
interphase
Which type of tissue allows for rapid communication between various parts of the body?
nervous
Which type of tissue covers the body and lines many of the parts of the body?
epithelial
Which is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body?
connective
Which type of tissue specializes in movement of the body?
muscle
Which type of tissue frequently has few cells embedded in an intercellular matrix?
connective
Which two types of tissue have the greatest ability to repair themselves?
epitheial and connective
Which organelle contains its own DNA molecule?
mitochondria
Which structure programs the formation of ribosomes?
nucleolus
Which process does not rely on active transport?
filtration
A codon consists of which number of nucleotides?
three
Which term refers to an increase in cell size?
hypertrophy
The thymus gland is part of the_____ system.
lymphatic