the critical analysis of everything in society from religion to politics and the optimism that the human mind could find the solution to everything
first to suggest a heliocentric universe but didn't publish his findings in "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" because he feared ridicule for his ideas
set the stage for the study of modern astronomy by building an observatory and collecting data for over twenty years on the location of the stars and planets. His greatest contribution to science was this collection of data
established experimentation (the cornerstone of modern science), invented the telescope, destroyed the notion that planets were crystal spheres. He was forced to recant his ideas by the Papal Inquisition and has come to symbolize the conflict between religious beliefs and scientific knowledge
English politician and writer who advocated that new knowledge had to be acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove/draw conclusion from a general point of view) called EMPIRICISM
"Cogito ergo sum" "I think therefore I am"; founder of Cartesian Dualism which reduced natural law into matter and the mind or spiritual and physical. wrote "Discourse on Method"
a Dominican friar executed by the Papal Inquisition in 1600 for arguing that there may be a plurality of worlds in the universe
greatest figure of the Scientific Revolution, wrote "Principia" in 1687, made laws on gravitation , experimented with optics, father of modern calculus
saw life as a balancing act. sought to balance the dogmatic thinking of the Jesuits and religious skeptics. "Pensees" emodies the idea that became known as "Pascal's Wager"
wrote "Leviathan", view of the depravity of human nature led him to propose the necessity for absolutism. Out of necessity, the sovereign has complete total power over his subjects, subjects are obliged never to rebel and the sovereign must put down rebellion by any means possible
wrote "Two Treaties on Government", believed that because man is a free and rational entity, when he enters into a social contract with the state, he does not give up his inalienable rights to life, liberty and property. Should an oppressive government challenge those rights, man has a right to rebel.
German philosopher who said that the Enlightenment was to "dare to know". the ultimate reward of such lifestyle would lead to freedom.
the Enlightened philosophers of France. they helped produce the "Republic of Letters", met in salons, and looked to reform society
wrote the "Wealth of Nations", came up with the theory of the invisible hand in economics, and greatly supported the idea of capitalism or laissez-faire
the greatest philosophe, wrote "Candide", hated the Catholic Church and its narrowness and bigotry, he was a deist, and felt that religion crushed the human spirit and that to be free, man needed to "ecrasez l'infame!"
wrote what was perhaps the most influential work of the Enlightenment, "Spirit of the Laws" (1748), wrote of separation of powers, a system of checks and balances, and wrote the "Persian Letters" (1721), also was a supporter of the anti-slavery movement
wrote the "Encyclopedia" which was among the Index of Prohibited Books, offers an example of the 18th c. belief that all knowledge could be organized and presented in a scientific manner, important in spreading Enlightened ideas to beyond Western Europe
a philosophe who went against the current and antagonized many of his fellow philosophes, including Voltaire, didn't believe in a constitutional monarchy like many of his colleagues but rather in a direct democracy, was a leading figure in the radical stages of the French Revolution, wrote "Social Contract" (1762), helped set the stage for the Romantic Movement, wrote "Emile"
wrote "On Crimes and Punishment" (1764) calling for a complete overhaul in the area of jurisprudence in Italy, is part of the overall theme of humanitarianism found in the Enlightenment
pushed further than French deists and delved directly into the world of atheism, wrote "Inquiry into Human Nature" casting doubt on revealed religion
reflected the growing interest in history that was first seen during the Enlightenment in his monumental "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"
meeting places for philosophes organized by women to avoid trouble with the authorities, yet despite the great role of women, little was done to improve their condition
wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women" stating that women should enjoy the right to vote as well as to hold political office, the first openly published statement of such ideas
Prussian nobility who looked to the ruler to ensure control over their serfs following the Thirty Years' War
Frederick the Great
Prussian power gained its peak during this monarch's rule, he freed the serfs on royal estates though to ensure continued support of the Junkers, didn't free private serfs, used Enlightened ideas to greater royal centralization and absolutism
empress of Austria who pushed a series of reforms that removed some of the hardships that had been placed on the serf population
supported the idea of religious toleration, particularly wished to reduce the power of the Catholic Church within his own domains, issued the first of a series of Edicts of Toleration granting Jews, Lutherans, and Calvinists freedom of worship
War of the Austrian Succession
a violent conflict between Prussia and Austria during the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, who lacked a male heir so pushed through the Pragmatic Sanction, but once Charles VI died, Frederick the great immediately launched an attack on Silesia (Austria) gaining the land from Prussia
idea by Charles VI allowing for the Hapsburg lands under Charles VI's control to remain intact under one ruler and granting the right of a female to succeed to the throne of Austria if there was no direct male heir (Maria Theresa)
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
treaty that ended the War of the Austrian Succession, resulting in Prussia emerging as a German state and a major rival of Austria,
following the War of the Austrian Succession, this reversal of alliances allied Austria with France against Prussia, Great Britain breaking ties with Austria becoming allies with Prussia, directly lead to the Seven Years War
war between the French and British that resulted in France losing much of its colonies in India and Canada to the British, highly costly
Ivan the Terrible
a violent ruler who significantly expanded the borders of Russia, with his death came the "Time of Troubles"
Time of Troubles
this troubling time occurred following the death of Ivan the Terrible, lasted until the rise of the Romanov family in 1603
Peter the Great
reformative ruler of Russia, did much to modernize and Westernize Russia to compete with the west
Catherine the Great
Enlightened ruler of Russia, sexually active ruler, began revising and codifying Russian law but mostly dabbled about reform, later threw out Enlightenment when she felt it would threaten her own power
the process by which Poland was divided over the years among the various Eastern European powers
argued in "Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontent" that parties were essential to parliamentary government and were a fundamental component for political stability
the fight for independence in the British American colonies during the time of King George III