51 terms

Environmental Science AP Chapter 2

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Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass
Measure of amount of matter it contains.
Atom
Smallest particles that can contain the chemical properties of an element.
Element
Substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components.
Molecules
Particles containing more than one atom
Compounds
Molecules with more than one element.
Atomic Number
Number of protons in the nucleus for an element, unique to that element.
Mass number
Total number of protons and neutrons in an element
Isotopes
Same amount of protons in the nucleus but different amounts of neutrons. Same element still.
Radioactive Decay
Spontaneous release of material from the nucleus.
Half Life
Time it takes for half of the original radioactive parent atom to decay
Covalent Bonds
Bonds that share electrons
Ionic Bonds
Charge imbalance bonds by transferring electrons.
Hydrogen Bond
Weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule.
Polar Molecule
One side is more positive while the other side is negative.
Surface Tension
Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water
Capillary Action
Adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules.
Acid
Substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
Base
Substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution.
pH
Scale to indicate the strength of acids and bases
Chemical Reaction
Occurs when atoms separate from the molecules they are a part of or recombine with other molecules.
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter can't be created or destroyed, it can only change form.
Inorganic Compounds
Do not contain carbon, or contain carbon that is bound to elements other than hydrogen.
Organic Compounds
Contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Carbohydrates
Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Glucose C6H12O6
Proteins
Long chains of nitrogen containing organic molecules called amino acids. Critical for organisms, plays roles with structural support, energy storage, internal transport, and defense against foreign substances. Enzymes.
Nucleic Acids
Organic compounds found in all living cells. DNA (Genetic material passed on to offspring) and RNA (Translates DNA code to make proteins.)
Lipids
Smaller biological molecules that don't mix with water.
Cell
Highly organized living entity that consists of macromolecules and other substances in a watery solution surrounded by a membrane.
Energy
Ability to do work or transfer heat.
Electromagnetic Radiation
Form of energy emitted by the Sun like UV, Infrared, and visible light.
Photons
Carries electromagnetic radiation. Massless, speed of light, can move through vacuum.
Joule
Amount of energy used when a 1 watt bulb is turned on for 1 second.
Power
Rate at which work is done. Energy = power * time.
Potential Energy
Stored energy that hasn't been released. No motion.
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion. Potential energy turns into kinetic.
Chemical Energy
Potential Energy stored in chemical bonds.
Temperature
Measure of average kinetic energy of a substance.
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can't be created or destroyed, only change form.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
When energy is transformed, some is dissipated as heat and ability to do work diminishes.
Energy Efficiency
Ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place.
Energy Quality
Ease with which an energy source can be used for work.
Entropy
Randomness of a system. Always increasing unless new energy from outside system is added to create order.
Open System
Exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries.
Closed System
Matter and energy do not exchange across system boundaries.
Inputs
Additions to a given system
Outputs
Losses from the system
System analysis
Determine input, outputs, and changes in the system under various conditions.
Steady State
Inputs equal outputs so the system is not changing over time.
Negative Feedback Loop
System responds to a change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.
Positive Feedback Loop
System responds by making the change and feedback increase.