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Environmental Science AP Chapter 2
Terms in this set (51)
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Measure of amount of matter it contains.
Smallest particles that can contain the chemical properties of an element.
Substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components.
Particles containing more than one atom
Molecules with more than one element.
Number of protons in the nucleus for an element, unique to that element.
Total number of protons and neutrons in an element
Same amount of protons in the nucleus but different amounts of neutrons. Same element still.
Spontaneous release of material from the nucleus.
Time it takes for half of the original radioactive parent atom to decay
Bonds that share electrons
Charge imbalance bonds by transferring electrons.
Weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule.
One side is more positive while the other side is negative.
Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water
Adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules.
Substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
Substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution.
Scale to indicate the strength of acids and bases
Occurs when atoms separate from the molecules they are a part of or recombine with other molecules.
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter can't be created or destroyed, it can only change form.
Do not contain carbon, or contain carbon that is bound to elements other than hydrogen.
Contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Glucose C6H12O6
Long chains of nitrogen containing organic molecules called amino acids. Critical for organisms, plays roles with structural support, energy storage, internal transport, and defense against foreign substances. Enzymes.
Organic compounds found in all living cells. DNA (Genetic material passed on to offspring) and RNA (Translates DNA code to make proteins.)
Smaller biological molecules that don't mix with water.
Highly organized living entity that consists of macromolecules and other substances in a watery solution surrounded by a membrane.
Ability to do work or transfer heat.
Form of energy emitted by the Sun like UV, Infrared, and visible light.
Carries electromagnetic radiation. Massless, speed of light, can move through vacuum.
Amount of energy used when a 1 watt bulb is turned on for 1 second.
Rate at which work is done. Energy = power * time.
Stored energy that hasn't been released. No motion.
Energy of motion. Potential energy turns into kinetic.
Potential Energy stored in chemical bonds.
Measure of average kinetic energy of a substance.
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can't be created or destroyed, only change form.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
When energy is transformed, some is dissipated as heat and ability to do work diminishes.
Ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place.
Ease with which an energy source can be used for work.
Randomness of a system. Always increasing unless new energy from outside system is added to create order.
Exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries.
Matter and energy do not exchange across system boundaries.
Additions to a given system
Losses from the system
Determine input, outputs, and changes in the system under various conditions.
Inputs equal outputs so the system is not changing over time.
Negative Feedback Loop
System responds to a change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.
Positive Feedback Loop
System responds by making the change and feedback increase.