38 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 1

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environment
The sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life
environmental science
The field of study that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature
system
Any set of interacting components that infludence one another by exchanging energy or materials
ecosystem
a partiular location on Earth distinguished by its mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components
biotic
living
abiotic
nonliving
environmentalist
A person who participates in environmentalism, a social movement that seeks to protect the environment through lobbying, activism, and education
environmental studies
The field of study that includes environmental science, environmental policy, economics, literature, and ethics among others
ecosystem services
The process by which natural environments provide life-supporting resources
environmental indicator
Something that describes the current state of an environmental system
sustainability
Living on Earth in a way that allows humans to use its resources without depriving future generations of those resources
biodiversity
The diversity of life forms in an environment
species
A group of organisms that is distinct from other groups in its morphology, behavior, or biochemical properties
speciation
The evolution of a new species
background extinction rate
The average rate at which species become extinct over the long term
greenhouse gases
a gas in Earth's atmosphere that traps heat near the surface
anthropogenic
Derived from human activities
development
Improvement in human well-being through economic advancement
sustainable development
Development that balances current human well-being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future generation
biophilia
Love of life
ecological footprint
A measure of how much an individual consumes, expressed in area of land
scientific method
An objective way to explore the natural world, draw inferences for it, and predict the outcome of certain events, processes, or changes
hypothesis
A testable theory or supposition about how something works
null hypothesis
A prediction that there is no difference between groups or conditions, or
replication
The data collection procedure of taking repeated measurements
sample size
The number of times a measurement is replicated in the data collection process
accuracy
How close a measured value is to the actual or true value
precision
How close the repeated measurements of a sample are to one another
uncertainty
An estimate of how much a measured or calculated vallue differs from a true value
inductive reasoning
The process of making general statements from specific fats or examples
deductive reasoning
The process of applying a general satement to specific facts or situations
critical thinking
The process of questioning the soure of information, considering the methods used to obtain the information, and drawing conclusions; essential to all scientific endeavors
theory
A hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested and confirmed by multiple groups of researchers and has reached wide acceptance
control group
In a scientific investigation, a group that experiences exactly the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the single variable under study
natural experiment
A natural event that acts an an experimental treatment in an ecosystem
environmental justice
A social movement and field of study that focuses on eliminating disparities in the exposure of environmental harm to different ethnic and socioeconomic groups
genetic diversity
A measure of the genetic variation among individuals in a population
species diversity
The number of species in a region or in a particular type of habitat
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