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Under normal circumstances, most water is lost in __________.


What solute in body fluids determines most of their chemical and physical reactions?


____ increases water reabsorption

ionic sodium

The body's water volume is closely tied to a powerful water "magnet." What magnet is referred to here?


Which hormone raises blood calcium levels?

decrease increase

A __________ in blood CO2 levels leads to an _________ in blood pH.

respiratory acidosis

The most common cause of acid-base imbalance is __________.


Which buffer system is the most abundant in the body?

respiratory alkalosis

What is the effect of hyperventilation on pH?

Hydrogen Phosphate

What is the most abundant intracellular anion?


What is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?


Where is the majority of water stored in the human body?


What hormone helps to maintain extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality when concentrations become too high?


Which of the following conditions promotes edema?


swelling caused by excess fluid in the body tissues

2500 ml

In a given day, what is the typical value for water intake?

water loss vomiting inefficient

risk factor for dehydration include:
a high rate of insensible ______ _____, _________, & __________ kidneys.

dry mouth increased osmolality decrease

____ _______, osmoreceptors detect ___________ ____________, and a _________ in blood volume are involved in triggering the Thirst mechanism.

DCT increase

PTH (parathyroid hormone) acts on the _____ to __________ Ca2+ reabsorption.

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

What is the most important trigger for aldosterone release?

bicarbonate buffer system

Which chemical buffer system is the only important system in the extracellular fluid (ECF) that resists short-term changes in pH?


Which organs are the ultimate acid-base regulatory organs?

maintaining HCO3- balance

The most important renal mechanism for regulating acid-base balance of the blood involves __________.


hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)

bicarbonate buffer system

The primary buffer of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is the __________.


Hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels).


converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I


"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure

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