Psychology - Unit 2
Terms in this set (47)
Occurs throughout nervous system, functions as a neurotransmitter.
Secreted by adrenal glands (especially in stress) increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, & carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion.
Estimate degree to which a trait varies in response to environmental and genetic variation.
-- Typically used together with twin studies estimating heritability.
Process of change which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.
Extension of a neuron, ending terminal fibers, messages pass to other neurons or muscles or glands.
-- Principle 1: There are biological correlates of
behaviour, physiological origins of behaviour,
stress hormone cortisol on verbal declarative
-- Principle 2: Animal research can provide insight
into human behaviour, researchers use animals
to study physiological processes, brain
plasticity, enriched and deprived environments
-- Principle 3: Human behaviour is genetically
based, behaviour can be explained by genetic
inheritance, concordance rates and twins
Study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Language expression—frontal lobe, usually left hemisphere, that directs muscle movements involved in speech.
Travel or movement in two different directions. Human nervous system is bidirectional and capable of carrying information both to and from brain and body.
Ability to change throughout life. Human brain has ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between brain cells (neurons).
-- German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and
-- Known for influential research of pathological
effects of specific forms of encephalopathy, and
study of receptive aphasia (referred to as
Wernicke's encephalopathy and Wernicke's
-- Led to groundbreaking realizations of
localization of brain function (speech).
-- Wernicke's Area (a.k.a. Wernicke's Speech Area)
has been named for him.
Extent to which two factors vary together, and how well either factor predicts the other.
Steroid hormone produced by adrenal cortex and used medicinally -- treat inflammation resulting from eczema and rheumatism.
Pattern of dendrites from a neuron.
Derived from two separate ova, not identical.
Neurotransmitter and precursor of other substances (including epinephrine).
Amplified recording of waves of electrical activity across brain's surface.Measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics.
-- Developed largely by Francis Galton as method of improving human race & fell into disfavor only after perversion of doctrines by Nazis.
Evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.
fMRI(functional magnetic resonance imaging)
Technique for revealing bloodflow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
-- fMRI scans show brain function.
Frontal Brain Hypothesis
Theory: malfunctioning relationship between frontal cortex and limbic system may cause criminal behavior.
Cerebral cortex just behind the forehead
-- speaking and muscle movements and making plans and judgments.
Chemical messengers manufactured by endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
Neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus. it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
Restrict (something) to a particular place.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue.
-- MRI scans show brain anatomy.
Inhibits melanin formation and thought to be concerned with regulating reproductive cycle.
-- Secreted by the pineal gland
Procedure to statistically combine results of many different research studies.
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or observing another. Brain's mirroring of another's action can enable imitation and empathy.
Derived from a single ovum, identical.
Range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Nature vs Nurture
Controversy over the relative contributions genes and experience make to development of psych. traits and behaviors. Today traits and behaviors arising from interaction of nature and nurture.
-- Basic building block of the nervous system.
Chemical messengers cross synaptic gaps between neurons. Released by sending neuron and travel across synapse and bind to receptor sites on receiving neuron
-- Influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Functions as neurotransmitter. Used as drug to raise blood pressure.
-- Released by adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerves.
Causes increased contraction of uterus during labor and stimulates ejection of milk into ducts of breasts.
-- Released by pituitary gland.
PET (positron emission tomography) Scan
Visual display of brain activity detects where radioactive form of glucose goes while brain performs a given task.
Studies neural mechanisms of perception and behavior through direct manipulation of brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled experiments.
Rational Choice Theory
Economic principle, states individuals always make prudent and logical decisions. Decisions provide people with greatest benefit or satisfaction — given choices available — and are also in their highest self-interest.
Neurotransmitter's reabsorption by sending neuron.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Type of recurrent major depressive disorder.
Episodes of depression occur during same season each year.
-- Sometimes called the "winter blues."
Unknowingly causes a prediction to come true, because they expect it to come true.
-- Expectation about a subject affect our behavior towards that subject, causes expectation to be realized.
Present in blood platelets and serum that constricts blood vessels and acts as a neurotransmitter.
Junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite (cell body) of receiving neuron. Tiny gap at junction is called synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
Tiny bulblike structures at end of dendrites, contain neurotransmitters carry neuron's message to synapse.
-- One of four parts of neuron along with soma, dendrites, and axon.
Males and females have it.
Additional testosterone in males stimulates growth of male sex organs in fetus and development of male sex characteristics during puberty.
Theory of Evolution
Process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioral traits.
-- Natural Selection
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