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U.S. History STAAR Review
120 flash cards :)
Terms in this set (119)
Declaration Of Independence (Cause and Effect)
Cause: America wanted to be independent from Great Britain.
Effect: America was free.
U.S. Constitution (Cause and Effect)
Cause: Articles of Confederation failed
Effect: Great Compromise
Still used today
Second Great Awakening (Cause and Effect)
Cause: Christianity was spreading and people were getting each other involved.
Effect: People are more emotional about religion.
Age of Jackson
Era of Good Feelings
Indian Removal Act
Era of the Common Man
Era of Reform
Art & Culture Developments
Bill of Rights
Westward Expansion (Cause and Effect)
Cause: Manifest Destiny
Effect: Pony Express
Reform Movements (Cause and Effect)
Effect: All goals achieved
Sectionalism (Cause and Effect)
Cause: North and South were not united
Effect: More railroads and industrialization in North; Production in South
Civil War (Cause and Effect)
Cause: Different perspectives on slavery issues
Effect: Civil War & Reconstruction
Reconstruction (Cause and Effect)
Cause: Civil War & South Seceding
Effect: 13, 14, 15 amendments
European Exploration Motives
God, Gold, Glory
Colonization of North America Motives
Reasons for Growth of Representative Government in Colonies
Colonists were tired of the control over their colony by their governor, who had no relation to the colony anyway.
Proclamation of 1763
Shortened the U.S. territory to only everything east of the Appalachian Mountains was their land.
Laws passed by England in 1774 to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Belief in the benefits of profitable trading.
"No Taxation Without Representation"
Britain was putting unfair taxes on the Colonies, so they wanted a say in laws.
French and Indian War Effects
-The declaration of Independence/revolution
-Colonists had power over things
-growing tension between G.B
Declaration of Independence
Document declaring independence from Great Britain.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution in America. (Failed)
Battle of Lexington
First shot of American Revolution; travelled onto Concord to battle.
Battle of Concord
First battle of American Revolution.
Battle of Saratoga
Major turning point of the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown
Last battle of American Revolution.
Winter at Valley Forge
Washington and troops were low on supplies, food, and clothing. Because it was a harsh winter, 1/5 of soldiers died.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
A member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government
A person who opposed a strong national government
National Security: Issues of the New Republic
We did not have a national unity.
American Political Parties: Origin and Development
Federalist-- Whig-- Republican, Anti-Federalist--Democratic-Republicans, Jacksonian Democrat-- Democrat
Washington's Foreign Policy
U.S. should remain independent from disputes between other nations
John Adam's Foreign Policy
France is capturing ships. They send secret agents (XYZ) to France. France wanted money, but we put the money in U.S. Navy.
Thomas Jefferson Foreign Policy
Bought Louisiana from the French- doubled the US territory. No trade with Europe. (Embargo Act)
James Madison's Foreign Policy
Created act that allowed trade with all countries except England and France. War of 1812.
James Monroe's Foreign Policy
Purchased Florida with the Adams-Oneis Treaty, and created the Monroe Doctrine that stated, no European recolonization or new colonization in the Western Hemisphere.
Issues of Building a Military in the New Republic
Citizens didn't want the federal government to grow to big with a national military.
Issues Defining the Authority of the Central Government in the New Republic
People got into an argument when deciding for a stronger central government or stronger state's government.
Issues of Creating a Stable Economic System in the New Republic
In creating a stable economic system, America then created the National Bank. Andrew Jackson swore, "I will kill it!"
One of the most significant achievements from Articles of Confederation. Established a system for setting up governments in Western Territories so they could eventually join the U.S.A.
Issues of Setting up a Court System in the New Republic
The Court did not have any 'great' power because the Federalists and Anti-Federalists did not agree.
The belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
US-Mexican War (Cause and Effect)
U.S annexation of Texas
Impact of Slavery on West
The North and South constantly battled to sway the vote of Westerners to become free and slave states.
Impact of Slavery on South
Slavery became a way of life in the South. The Southern economy was built on the dependence of slaves.
Sectionalism as a Cause of Civil War
The nation was already divided socially and politically, and the lack of sense of unity helped Southern States secede.
Impact of Slavery on North
Did not depend on slavery, so didn't affect them as much as South. However, cotton shipments decreased.
States' Rights as a Cause of Civil War
States' rights took part in the cause of the Civil War because of the battle between slavery.
Firing on Fort Sumter
The first battle of the Civil War.
First major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. Bloodiest single-day battle in American history. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation.
Impact of the 14th Amendment
The privileges from federal citizenship were the right to make and enforce contracts, the right to hold property, access to the courts (due process) and the right to freely travel within the U.S. All Freedmen could now do this.
Turning point of the Civil War
Capture of the Mississippi River by the Union.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln, this declared that all slaves in the Confederate States would be free.
Robert E. Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Court House
The meeting lasted approximately two and one-half hours and at its conclusion, the South rejoined the Union.
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln during a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater in Washington DC on April 14, 1865.
Economic Problems during Reconstruction
Need for paid labor in the South. Lack of jobs for freeman.
Sharecroppers-Farmers who paid for the rent of their crops.
Carpetbaggers- Northerners who went South and became involved in new states politics. Called this because of the luggage they carried.
Political Problems during Reconstruction
Determining who would control the Southern states, passage of Reconstruction Amendments, and whether or not treat the South as Brothers or conquered territory.
Social Problems during Reconstruction
Previous slaves had no rights; terrorist groups (KKK)
Physical and Human Characteristics of the North
People didn't like slavery and the land was bad for farming.
Physical and Human Characteristics of the West
Agreed with the North.
Physical and Human Characteristics of the South
Good Farmland. Most of the people supported slavery.
How does Physical Geography affect population?
A country's physical geography and location defines soil type, agriculture, resources and climate
How does Physical Geography influence economics of a region?
Farming if there is fertile soil.
Impact of Educational Reforms
School became mandatory and both blacks and whites were able to learn.
Impact of Temperance Reform
Banned Alcohol in the U.S.
Impact of Abolition Movement
Caused tension and led to the Civil War.
Impact of Women's Rights Movement
Helped give more rights to women and make them equal to men.
Impact of Labor Reform Movement
This led to laws banning child labor and restriction of working hours and minimum wage.
Impact of Prison Reform
There were better conditions for prisoners and crowding problems were solved.
Impact of Care of the Disabled Reforms
Disabled people were treated humanely.
Impact of the 1st Amendment on Religious Freedom on American Way of Life
Citizens appreciated the fact that they were able to practice a religion of there choosing without the threat of persecution in any way
Influence of Magna Carta on US System of Government
The writers of the constitution used the Magna Carta to help make the U.S Constitution.
Influence of English Bill of Rights on US System of Government
Gave the idea of a Legislature and the Three Branches of government.
Influence of Mayflower Compact on US System of Government
Helped create a representative government.
Influence of the Federalist Papers on US System of Government
Split the government into State and Federal governments.
Influence of Anti-Federalists writings on US System of Government
Improved the systems of the US Government
Alexander Hamilton's Arguments for Constitution
Constitution protected basic rights. Wanted stronger central government.
Patrick Henry's Arguments Against the Constitution
he didn't like the constitution because he thought that it gave less power to the states.
James Madison's Arguments for Constitution
Also a part of the Federalist party, Madison favored a strong central government and it needs to have more power than the state governments.
George Mason's Arguments Against the Constitution
Central government is too powerful. States need to have more power.
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
Origin of Judicial Review
In 1803, Chief Justice John Marshall expanded the power of the Supreme Court by striking down an act of Congress; Marbury v. Madison
rights that cannot be taken away
right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law, plead the fifth
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
No unreasonable searches or seizures; Must have warrant
Right to bear arms
No quartering of Soldiers
Right to a fair, speedy trial
Why did the Plantation System develop in the South?
The soil in the South was good for farming.
Right to a trial by jury
powers reserved to the States
No cruel and unusual punishments
citizens entitled to rights not listed in the constitution
Transatlantic Slave Trade
Took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of slaves transported to the New World were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, sold by Africans to European slave traders who then transported them to North and South America.
Impact of 15th Amendment
Allowed African American men to vote.
Why did Slavery Spread in the US?
it was the cheapest most effective form of labor.
Causes of the Manufacturing Industry Developing in the North
Interchangeable parts; Slavery
Causes of Agricultural Industry Developing in the South
The land was very fertile so they made a lot of money off their crops.
Effects of Manufacturing Industry Developing in the North
The North had a lot of factories to make products to trade and get money.
Effects of the Manufacturing Industry Developing in the South
Increased tools and machines used for sorting and preparing cash crops such as cotton
Effects of Steamboat
faster transportation and could carry more.
What Economic Factors Led to Rapid Industrialization?
Oil, Railroads, Farming
Effects of the Cotton Gin
Caused massive growth in producton of cotton in the south and expansion of slavery because laborers were needed to harvest and plant the massive amounts of cotton
What Economic Factors Led to Rapid Urbanization?
Effects of Interchangeable Parts
made it cheaper and easier for replacements.
Impact of Communication Systems on Growth and Development of US
it was a faster way to give out orders to those at war.
Impact of Transportation Systems on Growth and Development of US
Helped us figure out how to build more complex machinery.
Principle of Individual Rights
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that infringes on others' agreed upon rights
Process to Amend Constitution
2/3 of congress
3/4 of states must agree
Why would you amend the Constitution?
We need a stronger Federal Government.
Impact of 13th Amendment
Principle of Limited Government
Government can only do what the people allow them to do
Principle of Republicanism
Government in which the desires of people are represented in government by elected representatives.
Principle of Checks and Balances
Way of sharing power between branches of government equally
Principle of Federalism
divides power between federal and state government
Principle of Separation of Powers
The assignment of lawmaking, law-enforcing, and law-interpreting functions to separate branches of government.
Principle of Popular Sovereignty
is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power.
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