APGOV

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Terms in this set (...)

Partisan
A strong supporter of a party, cause, or person
Bipartisan
involving two political parties that usually oppose each other's policies
bicameral
(legislative branch) having two branches or chambers
incumbent
Currently holding office
constituent
Being a voting member of a community or organization and having the power to elect or appoint
federalism
Shared powers between state and federal gov't
separation of powers
The division of powers between the three branches of government
checks and balances
The system by which the three governing bodies are given the power to restrict one another
public policy
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ideology
a system of ideas and ideals that form the basis of economic, political theory, or policy
interest group
A group that aims to influence public policy on the basis of a particular common interest or concern
political party
An organized group of people that have roughly similar political aims/opinions. Aims to elect members into office in order to influence public policy
civil liberties
individual rights protected by law from unjust governmental or other influence
civil rights
the rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality
bureaucracy
A system of government where decisions are made mostly by state officials rather than elected officials
Blue state vs. Red state
blue state=mostly democratic // red state=mostly republican
divided government
one party controls the executive branch while the other controls one or both houses of the legislative branch
Linkage institutions
a structure within society that connects the people with the government or centralized authority
suffrage
the right to vote
entitlements
rights granted to citizens by federal government (medicare, welfare, social security)
Anarchy
Lack of government
Absolute Monarchy
A king or queen has complete control
Aristocracy
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Autocracy
One person has the power (not monarchy)
Confederal
Power at the state level only power flows up
Constitutional Monarchy
Monarch is a figurehead and parliament is the real source of power
Democracy
the people rule, either directly or indirectly
Dictatorship
Hitler/ Stalin/ Mussolini
Federal
one of the types of governments of the US
Oligarchy
A system of gov't in which the power is concentrated in the hands of a few people
Parliamentary
Legislative branch= Parliament // Executive branch=Prime minister // A-No gridlock/ more efficient // D-No separation of powers/ Checks and balances
Executive/ Presidential
Legislative branch=Congress // Executive branch=President // A-Stronger checks and balances/separation of powers// D-gridlock/inefficiency
Representative democracy
Indirect democracy// reps are elected by the people to govern on their behalf
Republic
"indirect" or representative democracy// elect reps to make decisions for us
Theocracy
Oligarchy ruled by religious leaders
Totalitarianism
Centralized and dictatorial and requires complete submission to the state
Unitary
Power is national level strong central gov't power flows down
Capitalism
The system of gov't that favors free enterprise (privately owned businesses operating without gov't regulation)
Communism
A political system in which, in theory, ownership of all land is in the hands of the people, and all goods are controlled by an authoritarian government
Karl Marx
German philosopher/ The father or communism
Laissez Faire
Hands off- the government stays out of economic affairs
Socialism
A form of rule in which the central gov't plays a strong role in regulating existing private industry and directing the economy although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity
Communitarians
Those who are willing to use gov't to promote both order and equality
Conservative
Those who are willing to use government to promote order but not equality
Liberal
Want to promote equality but not order
Libertarianism
Apposed to all gov't action
Political ideology
A consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government
Elite Theory
A small group composed of CEO's/ other rich business leaders, high ranking military officials, and high ranking government officials
Hyper pluralism
EXTREME pluralism, groups are so strong that the central gov't is weakened
Majoritarian model of democracy
People have all the power
Pluralism
Pluralist model of democracy
Equality
groups (political, social)
Freedom
Freedom of (rights) & Freedom from (immunity)
Order
The rule of law to preserve life and protect property. Maintaining order is the oldest purpose of government
Original Dilemma vs. Modern Dilemma
Freedom vs Order / Freedom vs. Equality
Democratization
A process of transition as a country attempts to move from authoritarian form of gov't to a democratic one
Equality of opportunity vs. Equality of outcome
Everyone has the same chances to succeed vs. society ensuring that everyone is equal by redistributing wealth and status
Globalization
The increasing interdependence of citizens and nations across the world
Government
The legitimate use of force to control human behavior; also, the organization or agency authorized to exercise that force
Majority Rule
51%>
Minority rights
Benefits of gov't that cannot be denied to any citizen by majority decisions
National sovereignty
A political entity's externally recognized right to exercise final authority over it's affairs
Procedural democratic theory
principles about how gov't should make decisions
Substantive democratic theory
democracy is bedded in the substance of gov't policy rather than the process
Social equality
equality in wealth, education, and status
John Locke vs. Thomas Hobbes
Lock loves (people are naturally good/natural rights) /// Hobbes hates (people are naturally bad/ government must provide order)
Universal participation
The concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making
1st Amendment
5 basic rights/ freedom of (religion, speech, press, assemble, petition)
2nd Amendment
right to bear arms
3rd Amendment
No quartering soldiers
4th Amendment
Protection from unreasonable search and seizure / Evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court
5th Amendment
//Rights of the accused// Cannot be tried twice for the same crime (double jeopardy) / Cannot be compelled to testify against oneself / due process /Eminent domain- gov't can take private property if used for legit gov stuff and they provide compensation
6th Amendment
//Trial process// Speedy and public trial/ impartial jury/ know charges against you/ can confront witnesses brought against you/ require testimony of favorable witnesses/ get an attorney
7th Amendment
Grand jury for trials over $20
8th Amendment
No excessive fines or bail/ no cruel and unusual punishment (death penalty)
9th Amendment
Not an exhaustive listing/ implied rights
10th Amendment
Reserved rights for States (if it's not mentioned in the Constitution it's left for the states)
11th Amendment
States can't sue other states
12th Amendment
Electoral college must cast separate votes for President and Vice President (election of 1800)
13th Amendment
Abolished Slavery (1/3 civil war amendments)
14th Amendment
Citizenship granted to all born or naturalized in the US / states cannot deny natural rights w/o due process/ Incorporation/ BoR applied to the states
15th Amendment
Gave African Americans the right to vote
16th Amendment
Personal income tax
17th Amendment
Popular election of Senators
18th Amendment
Prohibition
19th Amendment
Women's right to vote
20th Amendment
Lame Duck - inauguration on January 20th/ Congress begins term Jan 3rd
21st Amendment
Repeals 18th amendment
22nd Amendment
2 term limit for PODUS / 10 years maximum
23rd Amendment
D.C. gets three votes in Electoral College (no more than the least populated state)
24th Amendment
Eliminates poll taxes (making it easier for African Americans to vote)
25th Amendment
If president is unable to serve VP takes over and nominates replacement VP and gets it confirmed by congress
26th Amendment
lowered voting age to 18 (1971 bc Vietnam)
27th Amendment
Congressional pay raises don't take effect until the following term)
Primary election
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Open primary
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Closed primary
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Caucus
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Front Loading
States moving up the date of their Primaries to try and encourage candidates to campaign in their states
National Convention
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Platform
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Superdelegates
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Open election
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Incumbent
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PACs
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Franking
Free postage (know how this benefits incumbents)
Gerrymandering
manipulating district lines in a partisan manner