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191 terms

Ch. 14 Reproductive sys.

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genitalia
organs of reproduction& associated structures
perineum
external surface between pubic symphysis and the coccyx (in males & females)
male perineum
from scrotum to anus
female perineum
from vaginal orifice to anus
external male genitalia
penis & scrotum which contain testicles
scrotum
saclike structure that surrounds, protects testicles
testicles (orch/o)
'testes' two small egg shaped glands, produce the sperm.
epididymis
a coiled tube at upper part of each testicle (forms vas deferens)
penis
'penile' / 'phallic'
glans penis
'head of the penis' tip
foreskin
double layered fold, mucous membrane, that covers & protects glans penis
vas deferens
long, narrow continuations of each epididymis
prostate gland
under bladder surrounds end of the urethra
urethra
passes through penis to outside fo body > in male both reproductive & urinary system
urologist
physician > disorders of the urinary sys. of females and genitourinary sys. of males
Balanitis
inflamm. of glans penis >cause is poor hygene in men who have not had circumcision
Impotence
erectile dysfunction> inability of male to achieve/maintain an erection
Premature ejaculation
male reaches climax too soon
Andropause
'male menopause' marked by decrease of male hormone testosterone
Anorchism (orch=testicle)
absence of one or both testicles
Cryptorchidism
'undescended testicle' fail to descend in position in scrotum
Epididymitis
inflamm of epididymis caused by spread of infection from urethra or bladder
hydrocele
fluid filled sac in scrotum along spermatic cord
Priapism
a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more, not due to sexual excitement
spermatocele
a cyst that develops in epididymis
testicular cancer
most common in American males b/w 15-34. Treatable if diagnosed early
testicular pain
'orchalgia' pain in testicle(s)
testicular torsion
sharp pain in scrotum caused by twisting of vas deferens (torsion=twisting)
testitis
'orchitis' inflamm. of testicle(s)
varicocele
knot of varicose veins in one side of scrotum
normal sperm count
20-120 million or more per milliliter
Azoospermia
absence of sperm in semen
low sperm count
'oligospermia' below 20 million/ml
testicular self examination
self-help step to detect for lumps, swelling or changes in testicles
circumcision
surgical removal of foreskin of penis
orchidectomy
'orchiectomy' surgical removal of one or both testicles
orchiopexy
endoscopic surgery to move undescended testicle into normal position
varicocelectomy
removal of part of enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele.
sterilization
any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction
castration
'bilateral orchidectomy' surgical removal or destruction of both testicles
vasectomy
male sterilization when small portion of vas deferens is surgically removed
vasovasostomy
'vasectomy reversal' procedure to restore fertility vasectomized male
sexually transmitted diseases (STD's)
'venereal diseases' infections that affect males & females
chlamydia
caused by bacterium most commonly reported STD in US, highly contagious requires antibiotics
Genital herpes
caused by herpes simplex virus type 2, itch/burn before lesions appear
Genital warts
caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) highly contagious
human papilloma virus
vaccine available to prevent the spread of this disease.
Gonorrhea
highly contagious caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
human immunodefficiency virus (HIV)
transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids through sexual intercourse
Syphilis
caused by bacterium can be detected through VDRL -venereal disease research lab.-blood test
trichomoniasis
'trich' caused by protozoan parasite, frothy, yellow-green discharge in women can spread to men.
labia majora
vaginal lips that protect the external genetalia
clitoris
organ of sensitive erectile tissue
Bartholin's glands
produce mucus to lubricate vagina, on either side of vag. orifice
vaginal orifice
exterior opening of vagina
hymen
mucous membrane that partially covers opening before woman have intercourse.
mammary glands
'lactiferous glands' milk-producing glands develop during puberty
lactiferous ducts
'milk ducts' carry milk from mammary glands to nipple.
ovaries
'oophor/o' pair of almond shaped orogans on sides of uterus
follicle
fluid filed sac containing single ovum (egg)
ova
'eggs' female gametes
fallopian tubes
'uterine tubes' from upper end of uterus to point near an ovary
uterus
'womb' pear shaped musclular organ --hyster/o metr/o
fundus
bulging, rounded part above entrance of fallopian tubes
corpus
body fo uterus the middle portion
cervix
'cervix uteri' lower, narrow protion that extends into vagina
perimetrium
tough, membranous outer layer (of uterus)
myometrium
muscular middle layer
endometrium
inner layer of uterus consists of epithelial mucosa
vagina
muscular tube w/ mucosa extends from cervix to outside of body
menstruation
'menses' periodic discharge of endometrial lining & unfertilized egg
menarche
beginning of the menstrual function, begins after menstruation during puberty
Menopause
termination of menstrual function
perimenopause
to designate transition phase between menstrual periods and no periods.
gynecologist
physician> disorders of female reproductive system
obstetrician
provides medical care during pregnancy
neonatologist
physician treats disorders of newborn
pediatrician
physicain treats, disorders/diseases of children
Anovulation
absence of ovulation due to stress, nutrition
Oophoritis
inflamm of an ovary
Ovarian cancer
originates w/ in cells of ovaries
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
inflamm of female reproductive organs not associated with surgery or pregnancy
Polycystic ovary syndrome
hormonal imbalance ovaries are enlarged by cysts
Salpingitis
inflamm of fallopian tube
Endometriosis
patches of endometrial tissue escape uterus and become attached to structures in pelvic cavity.
Uterine cancer
cancerous growth on lining of the uterus
Uterine fibroid
'myoma' a benign tumor of tissue in wall of uterus
uterine prolapse
'pelvic floor hernia' condition in which uterus slides from normal position in pelvic cavity and sags into vagina
Cervical cancer
second most common cancer in woman --detected by Pap tests
Cervical dysplasia
'precancerous lesions' growth of cells in cervix can be detected by Pap smear.
Cervicitis
inflam of cervix
Endocervicitis
inflamm of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix
Colporrhexis
tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall
Leukorrhea
whitish mucus discharge from uterus and vagina
Vaginal candidiasis
yeast infection
Vaginitis
inflamm of the linging of the vagina
Pruritus vulvae
itching of the external female genitalia
Vulvodynia
a syndrome of unknown cause of chronic burning, pain during sex, stinging/itching of valvula
fibroadenoma
round, firm, mass formed from excess growth of tissue in breasts. Benign
Fibrocystic breast disease
presence of single or multiple benign cysts in breasts
Galactorrhea
production of breast milk in woman who is not breast feeding
Mastalgia
pain in breast
Mastitis
breast infection caused by bacteria during breastfeeding
Amenorrhea
absencee of menstrual periods for 3 or more months
Dysmenorrhea
cramps during a menstrual period
Hypermenorrhea
excessive ammount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days
Hypomenorrhea
small amout of menstrual flow during period
Menometrorrhagia
uterine bleeding at both usual time of period and irregular intervals
Oligomenorrhea
infrequent or light periods
Polymenorrhea
menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal
Premature menopause
ovaries cease functioning before age 40
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
woman get symptoms 2 weeks before peiod.
Coldposcopy
direct visual exam of cervix and vagina
endometrial biopsy
tissue from the lining of uterus is removed for microscope exam.
Hysterosalpingography
radiographic examination
Hysteroscopy
direct visual exam of uterus and fallopian tubes
Papanicolaou test
'Pap smear' indicates cervical cancer
Ultrasound
laparoscopy used to diagnose disorders of reprorductive sys
contraceptive
lessen likelihood of pregnancy ex. condoms
intrauterine device
plastic contraceptive inserted through cervix into uterus
Hormone replacement therapy
use of female estrogen to replace those the body no longer produces.
ovariectomy
'oophorectomy' surgical removal of ovaries
salpingectomy
removal of fallopian tube(s)
salpingo-oophorectomy
removal of a fallopian tube and ovary
Conization
'cone biopsy' surgical removal of cone-shaped tissue from cervix
Colporrhaphy
surgical suturing of tear in vagina
Dilation and curettage
procedure, cervix is dilated & endometrium of uterus is scraped away.
myomectomy
removal of uterine fibroids
hysterectomy
removal of the uterus
total hysterectomy
uterus & cervix are removed through abdomen or vagina
radical hysterectomy
procedure to treat cancer, removal of the ovaries & fallopian tubes, uterus & cervix plus nearby lymph nodes
mammoplasty
operation on breasts
breast augmentation
mammoplasty to make breast size larger
mastopexy
mammoplasty to elevate sagging breasts
Ovulation
release of mature egg from follicle surface of ovary
coitus
'copulation' or 'sexual intercourse' male ejaculates into female vagina
conception
when sperm penetrates and fertilizes the ovum
zygote
single cell from conception
embryo
8th week of pregnancy
fetus
9th week of pregnancy
Fraternal twins
fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells
Identical twins
fertilization of a single egg cell by a sperm that divides to form two embryos
multiples
birth of more than two infants
chorion
thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo
placenta
temporary organ that forms w/ in the uterus to allow exchange of nutrients/oxygen between mother and fetus
amniotic sac (bag of waters)
inner membrane surrounds embryo in uterus
Amnionic fluid
liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements
umbilical cord
tube that carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients from placenta to child.
navel
belly button where umbilical cord was attached
gestation
lasts about 280 days period of pregnancy
pregnancy
condition of having developing child in uterus
trimesters
three sets of 13 weeks each
due date
'etimated date of confinement' calculated from first day of last menstrual period
Quickening
first movement of fetus during 16th to 20th week of pregnancy
braxton Hicks contractions
uterine contrations occur more as pregnancy progressess
viable
capaple of living outside of the uterus
antepartum
final stage of pregnancy before labor
nulligravida
woman who has never been pregnant
nullipara
woman never borne viable child
primigravida
woman during her first pregnancy
primipara
woman borne one viable child
Multiparous
woman gave birth two or more times
labor and delivery
dilation, delivery and expulsion
postpartum
after childbirth
puerperium
time from the delivery of placenta through first 6 weeks after delivery
Lochia
postpartum vaginal discharge for 4-6 weeks after childbirth
Uterine involution
return of uterus to normal size and condition after delivery
colostrum
a specialized form of milk that delivers nutrients newborn can digest
lactation
process of forming and secreting milk from breasts
postpartum depression
mood disorder feelings of sadness, loss of pleasure in normal activity after giving birth
neonate
'newborn infant' first 4 weeks after birth
vernix
greasy substance that protects fetus in utero and can be present at birth
meconium
greenish material first stools of newborn
Apgar score
evaluates physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth
abortion
'miscarriage' interruption or termination of pregnancy
induced abortion
human intervention
theraputic abortion
for medical purposes
ectopic pregnancy
fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus
Preeclampsia
'pregnancy-induced hypertension' complication of pregnancy
eclampsia
more serious form of preeclampsia, convulsions and coma
abruptio placentae
disorder in which placenta separates from uterine wall before birth of fetus
breech presentation
buttocks or feet fo fetus are positioned to enter first before head
Placenta previa
abnormal implanation of placenta in lower uterus
premature infant
'preemie' fetus born before 37th week of gestation
stillbirth
birth of a fetus that died before or during delivery
amniocentesis
puncture with needle to obtain amniotic fluid
cesarean section
C section delivery by incision through uterine walls
episiotomy
incision through perineum to enlarge vaginal orifice as infant moves out
episiorrhaphy
suturing to repair an episiotomy
infertility
inability of couple ot get pregnant after 1 yr
infertility specialist
treats problems with conception and maintaining pregnancy.