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Lymphadenopathy and HIV
Terms in this set (30)
Most likely cause of lymph node infection
bacterial infections that can cause lymphadenopathy
s.aureus, m. tuberculosis
viral causes of lymphadenopathy
EBV, CMV, HIV, others
EBV and CMV both belong to what group of viruses
Characteristics of Herpes viruses
DNA viruses. Cause acute infection followed by latent infection that is asx and can be reactivated
HSV is associated with what symptoms
VZV is associated with what diseases?
chicken pox, shingles
EBV is associated with what disease?
infectious mononucleosis/ glandular fever
CMV is associated with what disease?
a less severe glandular fever-like illness
Four Herpes viruses
EBV, CMV, VZV, HSV
Glandular fever as a child/adult
children have minor illness, becomes more severe if acquired as an adolescent or adult
Characteristics of glandular fever infection
4-6 weeks incubation period followed by illness for 1-2 weeks that involves fever, a sore throat, malaise, fatigue and cervical lymphadenopthy
Infectivity/transmission of EBV
transmitted in saliva, persistent salivary secretion even after recovery
How would you diagnose EBV with laboratory results
lymphocytosis (>50% WBCs), atypical lymphocytes (>10% lymphocytes- cytotoxic and activated), abnormal LFTs, paul bunnel monospot tissue detects heterophile Ig (that binds to guinea pig/sheep/horse RBCs), specific EBV serology(detects Ig that bind EBV and EBV antigens)
how much after exposure does acute HIV infection present?
how does acute HIV infection present?
glandular-fever like illness,
what would you see in a person's secretions and blood with acute HIV infection
persistent viraemia and virus in genital secretions prescence of antibodies to HIV in blood
Characteristics of HIV virus
a rapidly-evolving enveloped RNA virus with a lipid bilayer derived from host cell, and RNA located inside a protein core.
Cell surface proteins attachment of HIV virus
gp120 and co-receptor bind CD4
how many helper lymphocytes doe sthe body produce per day?
how many virus particles does an active HIV infection produce?
what happens to productively infected CD4 T cells?
killed by CD8 T cells
Why is HIV not eradicated by the immune system
CD8 T cells can't recognise cells as infected if they are not actively replicating. DNA replication of HIV virus is not checked for errors and so develops different strains within the same infection (immune invasion)
Mechanism of course of untreated HIV infection to AIDs
infection, increased HIV levels, killing of most HIV cells. CD4 cells killed and # drops of both them and HIV particles, brief, glandular fever like illness, B lymphocytes produce Ig against HIV. HIV levels stabilise and Th cell # fall, development of AIDS as # HIV particles rises
How would you diagnose HIV
detect HIV in blood (ELISA screening test, Western blot as a confirmatory test), detect HIV genome in blood (PCR)
what does ELISA stand for?
enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay
How you would you perform an ELISA test for HIV
HIV antigen stuck to the base of ELISA wells, serum sample added to wells and Ig in serum attaches to HIV antigens if present. AHG antibody with adherent enzyme added attaches to the serum antibody, reagent is added which is ceaved by the enzyme on the AHG antibody casing a colour change
Diseases that define AIDS
pneumocystits jioveci (oneumonia) toxoplasma gondii (brain abscess), candida albicans (oesophagitis), cryptococcus neoformans (meningitis), myobacterium (TB), Karposi's sarcoma, CNS lymphoma, CMV retinits
Transmission risk of HIV per unprotected episode
male to male= 1%, male to female or vice versa=0.1%, mother to infant=25% at delivery, 12% with breastfeeding
main people with HIV in NZ
MSM, heterosexual immigrants
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