35 terms

Middle School Science Praxis II: Earth Science

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Sedimentary rock
Created by compaction or cementation
Intrusive igneous
Created by cooling and solidification of magma below Earth's surface
Extrusive igneous
Created by cooling and solidifaction of magma above Earth's surface
Precipitation
The formation of a solid
Mineral
Naturally occuring, inorganic solid
Mohs Scale
Measurement of mineral hardness
Felsic (light) mafic (dark)
Characterizations of igneous rock
lithosphere
Upper portion of Earth's layers, includes upper mantle and crust
Mantle
Includes asthenosphere and transition zone
Outer & inner core
liquid/solid iron or nickel innermost layer
folding
Bending of rock due to stress and temperature
faulting
parallel fracturing of rock
Convergent boundary
collision or subduction of plates
divergent boundary
seafloor spreading
Transform boundary
parallel grinding
Convection
rising and cooling of air or liquid
Condensation
transformation of water vapor into liquid
Infiltration
liquid water is absorbed into the ground
Uniformitarianism
states that the chemical, physical and biological processes that occur today also occurred in the past
Law of Superposition
oldest rocks on bottom, newest on top
Original Horizontality
all sediments are originally deposited horizontally
Lateral continuity
sedimary rocks are laterally continuous over large areas
Cross-cutting
If a body cuts across a stratum, it formed after the stratum
Law of Inclusion
Rock fragments must be older than the rock containing the fragments
remains of organisms replaced with minerals
formation of fossils
Wind-generated, little movement of actual water particles
ocean waves
Capillary waves
Ripples on smooth waters
seas
larger waves that form under irregular winds
swells
formed by seas that move away from point of origin
Tidal wave
Massive wave formed by displacement of a large body of water
Combined effects of gravitational forces exerted by sun, moon, and rotation of earth
Formation of tides
Spring (in a line, highest) neap (at right angle, lowest)
Severity of tides
Surface current
movement of ocean water, created by wind
Corolis effect
deflection of path of wind due to rotation of earth
Deep water current
"global conveyer belt"