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Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1
Terms in this set (25)
the study of the structure and the shape of the body parts and their relationships to one another
the study of how the body parts work or function
Levels of structural Organization
atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organ, organ system, organism
Integumentary system (Skin)
covers and waterproofs the body, cushions and protects the deeper tissues, excretes salts and urea in perspiration and helps regulate body temp., and contains temp., pressure and pain receptors.
Skeletal System (Bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints)
Supports the body and provides framework, protects underlying organs, formation of blood cells, stores minerals
Muscular System (Skeletal muscle)
Movement, facial expression; maintains posture; produces heat
Nervous System (Brain, sensory receptors, spinal cord, nerves)
The body's fast-acting control center; responds to external and internal changes by activating the appropriate muscles and glands
Endocrine system (Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, testis, ovary)
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
Cardiovascular System (Heart and blood vessels)
Heart pumps blood, blood vessels transport blood, which carries nutrients, waste, oxygen and carbon dioxide, etc...
Lymphatic System (Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, and tonsils)
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream; houses white blood cells involved in immunity.
Respiratory system (Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, and lungs)
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Digestive System (Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus)
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells; indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
Urinary System (Kidneys, Ureter, Urinary bladder, and Urethra)
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood.
Homeostasis (dynamic state of equilibrium)
Describes the bodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing.
The body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward.
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
toward or at the backside of the body; on the inner side of
toward or at the mid-line of the body; on the inner side of
Away from the mid-line of the body; on the outer side
close to the origin of the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
toward or at the body surface
away from the body surface; more internal
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