Week 6 Vocabulary Words, Week 7 Vocabulary Words

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a la
It is French for "in the manner of," "in the style of," and "according to" In cooking, this phrase designates the style of preparation or a particular garnish.
al dente
In Italian the phrase means "to the tooth" and is a term used to describe the correct degree of doneness when cooking pasta, risotto, and vegetables. The food should have a slight resistance (chewy) when biting into it, but should not be soft, overdone, or have a hard center.
Bain Marie
A water bath used to cook foods gently by surrounding the cooking vessel with simmering water. Also, a double boiler arrangement.
Brunoise
A dice cut that is 1/8 × 1/8 × 1/8 inch (0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 cm).
Capsaicin
The compound found in the placental ribs of a chili. Responsible for the heat of the chili causing watery eyes, a runny nose, sweating and burning. It has been found not only to stimulate pain receptors in the digestive tract, but to block some as well- allowing people to become accustomed to hotter and hotter dishes.
Carbohydrates
are a group of organic compounds that contain carbon in combination with the same proportion of hydrogen and oxygen (as in water). All starches and sugars are carbohydrates. The body receives a large amount of heat and energy from carbohydrate foods. The body changes all carbohydrates into simple sugar and the surplus is stored in the body as fat (and in the liver as glycogen). A large excess of sugar is normally eliminated by the kidneys. The usual "sweet tooth" of people is the result of body hunger for carbohydrates. Children require more carbohydrates than adults because they must satisfy the needs of growing bodies.
Chile
The fruit of certain types of capsicum peppers (not related to black pepper), used fresh or dry as a seasoning. Chiles come in many types (for example, jalapeno, serrano, poblano) and varying degrees of spiciness.
Chili
A mixture such as chili powder, or a dish of the same name.
Chilli
are a small, fiery variety of capsicum. They can be green, yellow, orange, red or black. There are more than 200 known varieties and they differ greatly in size, color and level of hotness.
Clarification
The process of combining cold degreased stock or broth with a clearmeat or egg whites. As the clear meat is heated, it rises to the surface and coagulates, collecting any particles that cloud the stock or broth. It is then removed from the stock or broth.
Clarified butter
Butter from which the milk solids and water have been removed.
Conduction
The transfer of heat is through direct contact.
Convection
The transfer of heat through a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.
Croquette
Small balls of vegetables or meat coated with egg whites or breadcrumbs or broth.
Deep frying
Using high heat to cook a food that is completely submerged in fat. Considered to be a dry-heat cooking method.
Degrease
Trimming off excess fat from the surface of sauces and soups.
Dredging
Coating moist food ingredients with dry ingredients like breadcrumbs before frying them.
Gastrique
is caramelized sugar, deglazed with vinegar, used as a flavoring for sauces.
Gelatinization
The process by which starches absorb water and swell in a moist-heat environment.
Irradiation
A process of exposing food to ionizing radiation to control bacteria.
Smoke point
The temperature to which oil can be heated to before it begins to smoke and discolor.
a point
Pronounced "pwah", a French term used to describe food cooked just to the point of perfect doneness.
Aging
The length of time that beef is stored under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity before being processed into food service cuts.
Barding
Wrapping a thin sheet of fatback or caul fat around an item so the meat does not dry out during cooking. The item will not have a flavorful crust, but will have a moister interior.
Baste
To spoon hot fat over the top of an item.
Braising
A slow simmer of whole or portion cuts of the main food items that is cooked in a small amount of liquid in a tightly covered pot. It is usually started on the stove-top and finished in the oven.
Calf
a young bovine animal, especially a domestic dairy cow, usually a male, generally between 16 and 18 weeks of age and weighing up to 450 pounds (204.5 kilograms).
Caramelization
The process of browning sugar in the presence of heat. The temperature range in which sugar caramelizes is approximately 320 to 360 F/ 160 to 182 C.
Carryover cooking
Heat retained in the cooked food that allows the item to continue to cook even after being removed from a heat source.
Cartilage
gristle, a tough, elastic connective tissue
Caul Fat
A fatty membrane from a pig or sheep that lines the stomach and resembles fine netting. Caul fat is used to bard meat and encase forcemeat.
Cellulose
is a type of insoluble (indigestible) fiber that gives fruits and vegetables their structure and firmness, such as found in apple or potato peels
Certified Angus Beef
a brand created in 1978 to distinguish the highest-quality beef produced from descendants of the black, hornless Angus cattle of Scotland. The meat must meet American Angus Association standards for yield, marbling and age and be graded as high choice or prime.
Charcuterie
The European art of preparing meat specialties, particularly (but not limited to) pork specialties. From chair cuit, "cooked meat."
Coagulation
The process by which proteins bond to each other, transforming them from a liquid or semiliquid state to a solid state, usually through the application of heat.
Collagen
A type of connective tissue that is a protein and appears white, thin, and semitransparent, found exclusively in animals. Collagen converts into gelatin with moist heat.
Connective Tissue
are tissue that holds muscle fibers in bundles.
Frenching
The process of scraping meat from bones before cooking.
Gelatin
An animal protein that can act as a thickener.
Lamb
is the tender meat that comes from young domesticated sheep of both sexes.
Larding
To introduce fat to lean meat by threading slivers of bacon or salt pork through it. Or to thread vegetables into the meat. Larding with vegetables gives the meat a contrast of color plus the addition of flavor. This practice is not used as often now because of the higher quality of meat available.
Offal
Variety meats, including organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys, sweetbreads, tongue, head meat, tail, and feet.
Sweetbreads
The thymus glands of young animals, usually calves or lamb.
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