35 terms

Canadian Government - Extras

For the Final

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The Notwithstanding Clause
A clause that allows parliament or provincial legislatures to allow an act to stand even though it contravenes the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Subject to Notwithstanding Clause
Fundamental freedoms, legal rights, equality rights.

Sections 2 and 7 to 15
Not Subject to Notwithstanding Clause
Democratic, Mobility and Language rights (are...)
Two rules of the Notwithstanding Clause
1. Need explicit legislative declaration
2. Only duration of five years until renewal necessary
Pros of Notwithstanding Clause Rules
1. ensures parliamentary supremacy,
2. allows debate,
3. allows renewal of parliaments,
4. strong public disapproval of clause
Cons of Notwithstanding Clause Rules
Subjects minorities to tyranny of the majority
3 Concepts of Representation
Delegate, trustee, and party member
3 Characteristics of Electoral Systems
Ballot structure, district magnitude, and electoral formula
Powers of the Federal Government
1. Peace, Order, Good Government
2. Raising money (tax)
3. Trade and commerce
4. Foreign affairs
5. Banking and currency
6. Criminal law
7. Residual powers
8. Indians
Powers of the Provincial Governments
Indirect taxation
Anything local or private in nature
Lands and resources
4 Themes of Fiscal Federalism
Taxing power, fiscal imbalance, federal spending power, and equalization
3 Types of parties
Ideological, catch-all, and brokerage
Pros of Brokerage parties
Maintain national unity, are pragmatic, are inclusive
Cons of Brokerage parties
No real choices, paternalistic
Interest Groups
Groups of people who work together for similar interests or goals, but don't run for public office.
2 types of Interest Groups
Insider and Outsider
Pros of Interest Groups
• Mechanism to hold governments accountable
• Intermediary linkage between governments and society
Cons of Interest Groups
• Privilege certain interests over others ($$$)
• Governments should represent all individuals
Wasted Votes
A wasted vote may be defined in two different ways:
1. Any vote which is NOT FOR an elected candidate.
2. Any vote which does NOT HELP to elect a candidate.
What are Political Parties
Groups of people who organize to help elect government officials and influence government policies
3 Characteristics of Political Parties
Publically funded groups,
common ideas and goals,
and attempt to win public office.
3 Ways of Leadership Selection
1. Caucus Vote
2. Conventions
3. All-member votes
(4. Support Votes)
What are Caucus votes?
The party caucus meets and those who are there vote.
What are Conventions (votes)?
Delegates go to a place and vote
What are All-member votes?
all vote regardless of who can attend. online, televoting, or mail-in.
New method of leadership selection
Support votes, where you don't need to be a member of a party to vote.
Adv. of Caucus Vote
Ensures leaders get experience and confidence
Disadv. of Caucus Vote
More sabotage,
Factions are created, media helps
Adv. of Conventions
More secure race,
more exciting
Disadv. of Conventions
Pricey to attend,
Not as democratic
Adv. of All-Member Votes
Eliminates elitism,
Most democratic
Disadv. of All-Member Votes
Candidates need to be marketable,
Not most qualified get elected,
May affect relations w/ caucus
Adv. of Support Votes (2)
1. Allows more people to have a say,
2. More exposure for race
Disadv. of Support Votes
May limit party influence
3 areas of Party Organization
Public Office, Central Office, and "On the ground"