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What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.


Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.

The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.


Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?


The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________.

cytotoxic cells

Helper T cells ________.

function in the adaptive immune system activation

Regulatory T cells ________.

may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

The primary immune response ________.

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?

pathogens in the CNS

Cytotoxic T cells ________.

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

Graft rejection may be caused by ________.

using a xenograft

Interferons ________.

interfere with viral replication within cells

________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.


Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

a second exposure to an allergen

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.

natural killer cells

Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.


Immunocompetence ________.

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.

Innate immune system defenses include ________.


Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?

Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.

Which of the following is not a type of T cell?


Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.


Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?

chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.

Select the correct statement about complement.

An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target

Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

Delayed hypersensitivities ________.

include allergic contact dermatitis

________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

Our genes

Clonal selection of B cells ________.

results in the formation of plasma cells

Which statement is true about T cells?

Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.

Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.


In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?


Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?

They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ.

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.

juvenile diabetes

Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.

mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

Select the correct statement about antigens.

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."

Tolerance is developed during fetal life.

Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?

helper T cell

Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

reactivity with an antibody

Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

Antigens only come from microbes.

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

bone marrow

Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?

activating cytokines

Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?

IgM contains 10 binding sites.

Fever ________.

production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

type II diabetes

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.


Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.

Isografts are between identical twins

The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds.


Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

allergic contact dermatitis

Natural killer (NK) cells ________.

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

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