64 terms

Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter 6 Oceanography
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Tilt of Earth
23.5 degree angle on its axis; causes the seasons
Albedo
the ratio of reflected to incident light
How does air (wind) move?
from regions of high pressure to low
High surface pressure is caused by?
Cool dense air
Low surface pressure is caused by?
warm less dense air
Atmosphere is composed of?
Mostly Nitrogen (N2) 78% and Oxygen (O2) 20%
Convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
Circulation cell
is a giant loop of moving air that includes a wind belt and the calm regions that border it; nonexistant at the equater and stronger at the poles
When there is warm/moist air and it is less dense what is the effect?
The air rises
When there is cool/dry air and it is more dense what is the effect?
The air sinks
Coriolis effect
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
Where is the Coriolis effect at a maximum?
At the poles
Where is there no Coriolis effect?
At the equator
Circulation cells as air changes density due to?
Changes in air temperature and water vapor content
Which Circulation cells have no wind between them?
Hadley cells, Ferrel cells, Polar cells
Trade winds
A wind blowing steadily toward the equator from the northeast in the northern hemisphere or the southeast in the southern hemisphere
Lateral wind
When air goes up or down there is none
Prevailing Westerlies
winds that blow away from the horse latitudes(30degrees to 60degrees) from west to east
Polar Easterlies
Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemispheres (cold air meets warm air of westerlies)The air moving along Earth's surface from the polar high to the subpolar low creates thepolar easterlies.
What are the boundaries between wind belts?
Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone, Horse Latitudes, and Polar fronts
What are the high pressure zones?
Subtropical high, polar highs, and clear skies
What are the low pressure zones?
Equatorial low, subpolar lows, and overcast skies with lots of precipitation
During summertime the pressure on land and sea is?
High pressure on land and low in ocean
During winter time the pressure on land and sea is?
Low pressure on land and high in ocean
Weather
conditions of atmosphere at particular time and place
Climate
long-term average of weather
Cyclonic
A counterclockwise movement around a low pressure region
Ex: Northern Hemisphere Winds
Anticyclonic
A clockwise movement around a low pressure region
Ex: Southern Hemisphere Winds
What is not a force but results in force so it is an effect?
Coriolis effect
Sea breeze
From ocean to land (During day = breeze coming in)
Land breeze
From land to ocean (At night = breeze moving out)
Storms
Typically develop at fronts
Fronts
the boundary line where air masses meet
Tropical cyclones (Hurricanes)
Large rotating masses of low pressure, strong winds, torrential rain, classified by maximum sustained wind speed
Ocean's climate patterns may be modified by surface ocean currents
True
Equatorial regions
Warm, lots of rain, doldrums
Tropical regions
warm, less rain, trade winds
Subtropical regions
rather warm, high rate of evaporation, weak winds and ocean currents
Temperate regions
strong westerlies, largest wind generated waves
subpolar regions
cool, winter sea ice, lots of snow
Polar regions
cold, sea ice, polar high pressure
Which gases are trapping energy?
carbon dioxide
Greenhouse effect causes what?
Trace atmosphere gases absorb heat reradiated from surface of Earth, infrared radiation released by Earth, and solar radiation mostly ultraviolet and visible region of electromagnetic spectrum
Earth's heat budget
Some heat is reflected, some absorbed, and some re-radiated; Earth maintained a nearly constant average temperature because of equal rates of heat gain and heat loss
What can be considered green house gases?
Absorbed longer wave radiation form Earth, water vapor, carbon dioxide, other trace gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons
Anthropogenic greenhouse
Heat-trapping gases such as CO2
If the ocean goes up by one degree how much does it go up by?
2 meters
Consequences of global warming are?
melting glaciers, shift in species distribution, warmer oceans, shifts in areas of rain/drought, and rising sea levels
How can greenhouse gases be reduced?
greater fuel efficiency, alternative fuels, re-forestation, eliminate chlorofluorocarbons, reduce CO2 emissions
What is the ocean's role in reducing CO2?
Oceans absorb CO2 from atmosphere, CO2 is incorporated in organisms and carbonate shells (tests), stored as biogenous calcareous sediments and fossil fuels, ocean is repository or sink for CO2, and it adds iron to tropical oceans to "fertilize" oceans (increase biologic productivity)
Hadley cell
Between 0 and 30 degrees latitude
Ferrel cell
Betwen 30 and 60 degrees latitude
Polar cell
Between 60 and 90 degrees latitude
Doldrums
The boundary between the two trade wind belts, and it coincides with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
horse latitiudes
The boundary between the trade winds and the prevailing westerlies
Polar front
The boundary between the prevailing westerlies and the polar easterlies
Three circulation cells
Hadley cellFerrel cell, and polar cell
summer solstice
Day with the most hours of sunlight and the fewest hours of darkness (for Northern Hemisphere; S hemisphere gets more darkness)
winter solstice
Day with the most hours of sunlight and the fewest hours of darkness (for Southern Hemisphere; N hemisphere gets more darkness)
There is an annual net heat loss at high latittudes and a net annual heat gain at low lattiudes, why does the temp difference between these regions not increase?
Heat is transferred from the low lattiudes to the high latitudes by atmoshperic winds and ocean currents.
Air movement
Air always moves from high pressure to low pressure regions
Cyclonic flow
Counterclockwise flow of air around low-pressure cells (N Hemisphere) and clockwise flow of air around high pressure cells (S Hemisphere)
Anitcyclonic flow
clockwise flow of air around high-pressure cells (N Hemisphere) and counterclockwise flow or air around low-pressure cells (S Hemisphere)
Ocean's climate Belts
Equatorial, Tropical, Subtropical, Temperate, Subpolar, and Polar