Withdrawal Symptoms • Usually start within 12-72 hours / Persist 5-7 days
• Can be mild: nausea, anxiety, tremors
• Can be life-threatening: hallucinations, cramps, tremors, seizures, increased HR, increased BP, increased T
• Benzodiazepines (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, lorazepam) leads to decreased DT and risk of seizures, decreased intensity of symptoms
• Adjuncts (carbamazepine, clonidine, propanolol) leads to decreased seizure, decreased craving, depress autonomic response (decreased HR, decreased BP, decreased T)
• Disulfiram (Antabuse) --> ĉ EtOH, aldehyde syndrome occurs (nausea, extreme vomiting, hypotension) --> Can progress to respiratory and cardiac depression, seizures, and death.
• Naltrexone (ReVia) --> Opioid antagonist that decrease craving and pleasurable effects
• Acamprosate (Campral) leads to decreased pleasant effects of abstinence (anxiety, etc)